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Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of the different steps in the food-processing industry, ususally through ownership by large corporations


The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain

cereal grain

A grass yielding grain for food


Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing


A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain white moving over a field

commercial agriculture

Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate product for sale off the farm


Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season

crop rotation

The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil


Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop panting, animal grazing, and tree cutting

double cropping

Harvesting twice a year from the same field


seed of cereal grass

green revolution

Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seed and fertilizers


The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers


The outer covering of a seed

intensive subsistence agriculture

A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land


The area surroudning a city from which milk is supplied


Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah

pastoral nomadism

A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals


Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing


A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country

prime agricultural land

The most productive farmland


A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area


A machine that cuts cereal grain standing in the field

ridge tillage

System of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce fram production costs and promote greater soil conservation


A flooded field for growing rice

shifting cultivation

A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each file is used for crops for a relatively few years and and elft fallow for a relatively long period

slash and burn agriculture

Another name of shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris

spring wheat

Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer

subsistence agriculture

Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the famer's family

sustainable agriculture

Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizers and pesticides


A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning


To beat out grain from stalks by trampling it


The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures

truck farming

Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so naemd because truck was Middle English word meaing bartering or the exchange of commodities

wet rice

Rice planted on dry-land in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth


To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind

winter wheat

Wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer

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