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Muscle, Bone, and Skin

What are the functions of muscle contraction? ****

i) body movement
ii) stabilization of body position
iii) movement of substances through the body
iv) generating heat to maintain body temperature

tendon vs ligament

- a tendon connects muscle to bone
- a ligament connects bone to bone

synergistic muscles

muscles that assist the agonist by stabilizing the origin bone or by positioning the insertion bone during the movement

List the types of muscles.***

i) skeletal muscle
ii) cardiac muscle
iii) smooth muscle

Which part of the brain controls shivering?



functional unit of skeletal muscle

Components of sarcomere

i) Z line
ii) A band (doesn't change)
iii) H zone (changes)
iv) I band (changes)

Stages of sliding filament theory.*****

1) first, tropomyosin covers an active site on the actin preventing the myosin head from binding
2) second, in presence of calcium ions, troponin pulls the tropomyosin back, exposing the active site and thus allowing the myosin to bind
3) power stroke
4) ATP attaches to the myosin head
5) ATP splits to inorganic phosphate and ADP

What makes thin and thick filament?

actin and myosin respectively

What are troponin and tropomyosin?

proteins attached to the actin

Active site is in


Sliding filament theory

explanation of how muscle produce force

Two qualifiers for muscles to contract

i) Must have calcium
ii) Must have ATP

Power stroke

bending of myosin to low energy state via the expulsion of ADP and phosphate from the myosin head, which leads to shortening of sarcomere

Role of action potential in muscle contraction

AP initiates muscle contraction. AP of the neuron releases Ach in the neuromuscular synapse. The Ach activates ion channels in the sarcolemma of the muscle cell creating an AP. AP travels via T-tubules to the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which increases its permeability to calcium. At the end of each cycle, calcium is actively pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.


small tunnels in the muscle membrane which allows action potential to spread through the muscle cell more rapidly

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

specialized endoplasmic reticulum of the muscle cell, whose lumen is filled with calcium ions

motor unit

neuron and the muscle fibers that it innervates
- independent of each other
- small motor units are usually the first ones to be activated

Types of skeletal muscles***

i) slow oxidative (type I) fibers,
ii) fast oxidative (type II A) fibers and,
iii) fast glycolytic (type II B) fibers


oxygen storing protein with one subunit
- stores oxygen inside muscle cells
- capable of storing only one molecule of oxygen

Type I fibers

- contains large amounts of myoglobin and mitochondria
- split ATP as slow rate
- slow to fatigue, but also have slow contraction velocity

mitosis in human muscle cells

occur very very rarely


increase in muscle cell diameter and conformation


increase in the number of muscle cell via mitosis
- happens rarely

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