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An educated guess on how things will work.


A factor in the experiment.


A part of the test that you know will work.

Macromolecules- Polymers

Chains that are formed together by cells building
macromolecules by bonding small molecules.


To provide energy to all living things. Plants, some
animals, and other organisms for structure.


To store energy


Controls rate of reactions and regulated cell processes. In some organisms, it helps fight diseases.

Nucleic Acids

Store and transmit hereditary information.

Which stores energy?

Lipids and Nucleic Acids

What stores the most energy?


Function of macromolecules

Transporting and containing other molecules in the body.

Simple tests of chemicals in food.

Benedict's Solution- Test for simple sugars- Carbs-Blue-> Green-> Yellow -> Brick Red
Iodine- Test for starch- Carbs Amber-> Purple -> Black
Brown paper- Test for fat- Lipid Opaque -> Translucent
Biuret Solution- Test for Protein Blue -> Purple

Organic vs. Inorganic

Inorganic has more chemicals.


Enzymes are catalysts


A body maintaining the same temperature according to the conditions.


Cells are specialized for the specific part of the body.

Cell Organelles

Cell Membrane-Regulates what goes in and out of a cell
Nucleus- Using DNA, it controls the cell's activities
Cytoplasm- Gel-like substance
Mitochondria- Powerhouse of the cell site of respiration
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Transportation network for the cell
Nucleolus- Manufactures ribosomes
Cytoskeleton- Interior framework
Cell Wall- Inflexible Provides support and shape Plants
Chloroplast-Contains chlorophyll Uses light energy from the sun
Cilia-Short hair like structures
Plastid-Stores starches and pigments
Vacuole-Stores water and food bigger in plant cells
Lysosome-Recycler for the cell
Flagella-Long whip like structures
Ribosomes-Where proteins get made Often found in ER

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic cells don't have DNA in the
nucleus, Eukaryotic cells do.

Plant vs. Animal Cells

Cell wall in plants

Plasma Membrane

Selectively permeable

Passive Transport

Hypertonic- When the concentration of fluid outside of the cell is greater then the concentration inside, causing the cell to diffuse out.
Hypotonic- When the concentration of fluid outside of the cell is less than the concentration inside.
Isotonic- When the concentration of fluid is equal inside and outside of the cell.
Turgor pressure- When the plasma membrane is pushed against the cell wall. The hypotonic condition causes it to increase.
Plasmolysis- When a plant cell is placed in a highly concentrated solution, water diffuses
out of the cell, and turgor pressure is lost causing the cell to become flaccid. Further loss
of water will result in plasmolysis, and finally to cytorrhysis, the complete collapse of cell
Cytolysis- when the cell membrane bursts

Active Transport

Occurs when substances move against the concentration gradient, requires energy and the aid of carrier proteins.

The role of ATP as the primary energy storage compound

A compound used by cells to store and release energy.


Energy from the sun is stored in chemical bonds

Which organelle helps in the process of photosynthesis?


Role of chlorophyll and the accessory pigments

Chlorophyll absorbs the light

Chromatography and pigment separation

Yellow Orange- Carotene
Grey- Decomposed chlorophyll
Yellow- Xanthophylls
Dark Green- Chlorophyll A only non-accessory pigment
Light Green- Chlorophyll B

Fluorescence and chlorophyll

Red is emitted when light hits molecule

Process of photosynthesis

Light- Dependant Reaction
-Chlorophyll is energized
-Makes ATP
-Splits water
-Hydrogen is picked up by NADP
-Oxygen is released

Dark or Light- Independent Reaction or Calvin Cycle
-Carbon dioxide is combined with the intermediate
-Splits to form partial sugar
-Partial sugar combines with NADPH


Energy from glucose is released in order to do cell work- Done by both autotrophs and heterotrophs

Glycolysis- the anaerobic phase

How much ATP is released? 4
Where in the cell?- Cytoplasm

Kreb Cycle and Electron Transport chain- the aerobic phase

How much ATP is released?- 2
Where in the cell?- cytoplasm


When?- Cabbage and salt are mixed together in a crock. All the air escapes and no more is allowed in. Five weeks for complete fermentation.
Why?- Bacteria produces lactic acid from the lack of oxygen.
How much ATP?- 2

Microscope Magnification

Define- Yellow is high power, magnifies 43 times. Green is low power, magnifies 10 times. Eyepiece magnifies 10 times.
Calculate- Magnified 430 times on high power, magnified 100 times on low power.

Resolving Power

The ability of a microscope, telescope, or other optical instrument to produce separate images of closely placed objects.

How do you make a wet mount?

Take a glass slide and put the subject on it. Place a drop of water on the subject. Take a plastic slide and put it on the subject at a 45 degree angle. Tap out air bubbles.

What happens when you move the slide?

The subject moves the opposite direction it was moved.

Low Power vs. High Power

Low power is less magnified and high power is more.

Specialization in Living Things

Prokaryotic cell -> Eukaryotic cell organelles -> Tissues -> Organs -> Organ systems -> Organisms

What adaptations enable specialization?

The cell has an "on and off" switch to tell which parts are specialized.


Complementary base pairs A and T, G and C


When the DNA is copied


When the RNA is made into a complementary strand of DNA

How is RNA different from DNA?

RNA contains a ribose sugar that has oxygen
while DNA has deoxyribose sugar which does not have oxygen. DNA has the base Thymine, while RNA has the base Uracil. RNA is single stranded while DNA is double stranded in a double helix.

3 kinds of RNA

The messenger RNA carries the code into the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs.
The tRNA reads the code and carries the amino acid to be incorporated into the developing protein.
In the cytoplasm, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein combine to form a nucleoprotein called a ribosome.

Codons and anticodons

Each set of 3 bases on the mRNA is called a codon. Each codon calls for a specific amino acid to be brought to the building site. A tRNA with an anticodon that matches whichever codon is in place on the ribosome

Amino acid sequences and proteins

To form protein, the amino acids are linked
by dehydration synthesis to form peptide bonds. The chain of amino acids is also known
as a polypeptide.


A mutation is a change in DNA, the hereditary material of life. An organism's DNA affects how it looks, how it behaves, and its physiology. So a change in an organism's DNA can cause changes in all aspects of its life.

Mitosis vs. Meiosis

Mitosis maintains the diploid number- in body (somatic) cells
Meiosis or reduction division creates the gametes with the haploid number

Homologous chromosomes

Homologous pairs have different sections of sequences

The phases of Mitosis

Interphase- The cell is growing the the first stage. In the second phase, DNA is being replicated. In the last phase, the cell is getting prepared for mitosis.
Prophase- The genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the duplicated
chromosomes become visible. A spindle starts to form outside the nucleus.
Metaphase- The centromeres of the duplicated chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Spindle fibers connect the centromere of each chromosome to the poles of the spindle.
Anaphase- The chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to the opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase- The condensed chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin.

The phases of Meiosis

Meiosis 1
Prophase 1- Each replicated chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome.
Metaphase 1- Paired homologous chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.
Anaphase 1- Spindle fibers pull each homologous chromosome pair toward opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase 1- A nuclear membrane forms around each cluster of chromosomes.
Cytokinesis- Two new cells are formed.
Meiosis 2
Prophase 2- The chromosomes that have two chromatids are visible.
Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2, Telophase 2, and Cytokinesis- These phases are similar to the phases in Meiosis 1 except 4 haploid daughter cells are formed.


Football shaped object the connect the chromosomes to the ends of the cell.


The centromere is the part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids

Sister chromatids

Sister chromatids have the same sequence, same chromatids

Why cells can't get too big

Growth and Development

Punnett squares

Squares that determine the genetic types of offspring

Monohybrid and dihybrid crosses

Monohybrid cross is with one gene and a dihybrid cross is when there is more than 1 gene.

Dominant and recessive

A dominant gene is one where the gene is present can be noticed and a recessive gene is one where it's there, but can't be seen.

Codominance/ incomplete dominance

Codominance is when the contributions of both alleles (genes) are clearly visible. incomplete dominance is like a mix of the genes like red + white = pink

Multiple alleles: Blood types

Heterozygous. blood types are like if you get one
blood type from your mom and another from your dad, you get a mix.

Sex Linked traits

genes carried on the x chromosome.

Genetic Disorders

PKU- Found in urine, 12th chromosome, diet to help fix
Sickle cell anemia and malaria- Hemoglobin, growth retardation, transfusion treatment
Hemophilia- No clot factor, males
Huntington's- chromosome 4, brain defect, midlife diagnosis
Tay Sachs- Chromosome 15, toxic buildup, Jews
CF- Chromosome 7, white people, epithelial cells

Aneuploidy: Monosomy, Trisomy

Monosomy is one copy of the gene and trisomy is three copies of a gene


How?- Separating all the chromosomes of a person into the different pairs
Why?- To see if there are any defects in the chromosomes

Natural Selection

What is it?-There is variation in traits. There is differential reproduction. There is heredity.
How does it relate to mutations?- External influences can create mutations

What conditions cause evolution?

Natural selection, genetic drift, mutations, gene flow, and nonrandom mating


Populations not individuals evolve

What is a species?

A group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding. The species is the principal natural taxonomic unit, ranking below a genus.

Every species has two names- binomial nomenclature

Each species is assigned a two part scientific name. Written in italics first word is capitalized and the second is not capitalized.

What is a human's kingdom chart?

Kingdom- Animalia
Phylum- Chordata
Class- Mammalia
Order- Primates
Family- Hominidae
Genus- Homo
Species- Homo sapiens

What criteria are used to classify organisms?

Evolutionary relationships and structural
similarities of organisms.

What are the classification groups?

Kingdom, ,Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Who gets classified with who?

Those organisms that are most closely related share the most classification groups

Photosynthesis Equation

6CO2+ ^H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2


Sex Cell


Fertilized Egg

Down's Syndrome

trisomy 21

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