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50 terms

criminology

STUDY
PLAY
basic human behavior and drives
traits theorist focus on_that are linked to antisocial behavior patterns
mesomorph
according to William Sheldon, who believed that criminals manifest distict physiques,which somatotype was most likely to become criminal
inheritance school
the study of generations of families believed tp have especially large number of criminal members is the
how social behaviors are learned and perceived
sociobiology differs from earlier theories of behavior in that it stresses that biological and genetic conditions affect
Physical conditions,environmental conditions, social conditions
biosocial theorist believe human behavior is produced by
Biophobia
the belief that no serious consideration should be given to biological factors when attempting to understand human nature is known as
equipotentiality
The belief that all humans are born with equal potential to learn and achieve is known as
decreasing the amount of artificial colors and flavors present in the inmates food
A prison warden employs a biosocial theorist to develop a plan to reduce institutional violence.what major change might the biosocial theorist recommend?
hypoglycemia
A condition that occurs when glucose in the blood falls below levels necessary for normal and efficient brain functioning is known as
lead
a number of environmental contaminants have been associated with emotional and behavioral disorders.which of the following has been linked to aggressive behaviors on both a macro_or national level and on micro or individual level
the average blood lead decade
which of the following statements pertaining to the link between lead and crime is inaccurate?
Androgen
Biosocial theorist have evaluated the association between violent behavior episodes and hormone levels.Their findings suggest that abnormal levels of these male sex hormones influence the neocortex and have been linked to aggressive behavior
testosterone
it has been been argued that declining levels of what hormone cause the aging out process?
premenstrual syndrome
the onset of the menstrual cycle triggers excessive amounts of female sex hormones that affect antisocial,aggressive behavior.This condition is commonly referred to as
maternal rejection
Neurological deficits may interact w another trait or social condition to produce antisocial behaviors.Research conducted by rain found that children who experienced-were more likely to engage in criminal offending than children who dis not experience these factors.t
stratified
people in the united states live in what type of society
social disorganization theory,strain theory,and cultural deviance theory
what are the tree branches of social structure theory?
5%
the wealth concentration effect in a worldwide phenomenon.in the united states,the top_percent of households collect more than 50 percent of all house hold income,the most the in history
social class
segments of the population whose members have a relatively similar portion of desirable things and who share attitudes,values,norms,and and identifiable lifestyle are known as?
poverty during early childhood may have a more sever impact on behavior than poverty during adolescence or adulthood.what percent of American children live in poverty?
18
in 1966,oscar lewis argued that the crushing lifestyle of lower class area produce_which is are passed frm one generation to the next
a culture of poverty
members of the underclass whoare socially isolated,live in urban inner cities,occupy the bottom rung of the social ladder,and are the victims of discrimination are known as ?
the truly disadvantaged
a socially disorganizeed area is one in which the_have broken down and can no lonfer carry out their expected or stated functions
institutional of social control
social disorganization theory focuses on which of the following conditions in the urban environment
inadequate social control and deteriorated housing
social disorganization theory was popularized by the work of two chicago sociologists
McKay and Shaw
poverty ridden neighborhoods which suffer high rates of populayion turnover and are incapable of inducing residents to remain are known as
transitional neighborhoods
According to Shaw and Mckays statistical analysis,in which concentric zones were the highest rates of crime found
Zones 1 &11
The social disorganization concepts of Shaw and McKay were developed over 75 years ago.Which of their findings are still applicable today?
All the above
social ecologists known that people who report living in a neighborhoods w high levels of crime and civil disorder become suspicious and mistrusting.some residents become so suspicious that they develop a - in which the outside world is considered the enemy out to destroy their neighborhood.
Seige mentality
As communities undergo cycles of change,neighborhoods deterioration precedes increasing crime rates neighborhoods most at risk for crime rate increases contain
large numbers of single parented families and unrelated people living together owner occupied units
The process of human development and enculturation is known as
socialization
although members of lower class may have added burdens of poverty,racism ,poor schools,and disrupted family lives,these social forces may be counteracted by
all the above
children in homes where a parent suffers frm mental impairment are at risk for?
delinquency
Schools contribute to criminality when they
Label problem youth
Research indicates thats school dropouts,especially those who have been expelled, face significant chance of entering a criminal career. According to the Urban Institute, what percent of American students manage to graduate?
68 percent
In every level of the cocial structure, youths who fall in with a "bad crowd" become more susceptible to:
criminal behavior patterns
Social learning theory suggests that crime is a _ behavior
Learned
Whose name do we associate with the prominent learning theory of differential association?
Sutherland
A criticism of learning thoeries is that they fail to adequately explain?
Spontaneous acts of violence
Referring to differential association thoey, how does learning criminal behavior differ from learning other behavior?
There is no difference between learning criminal behavior and non-criminal behavior
Conflict theorist are concerned with which of the following?
All of these
Conflict theorists are concerned about the impact of globalization. Which of the following is not a globalization threat?
he improved standard of living in Third world nations
The view that the inter-group conflict and rivalry that exist in every society causes crime is known as?
Critical Criminology
In 1848, Karl Marx issued his famous?
Communist Manifesto
Productive forces include such things as
All of these
The relationship that exists among the people producing goods and services are known as?
Productive relations
Within Marxist thought, The owners of the means of production are called?
Capitalist bourgeoisie
Within Marxist thought, the people who perform the actual work are called
The Proletariat
In Marxist theory, what term refers to ones position in relation to others?
Class
The view held by Marx that the laboring class goods that exceed wages in value is known as?
Surplus Value