Chapter 15 fire hose
Terms in this set (182)
Firehose is a flexible, portable extension of the water distribution system that carries water from the fire hydrant for water source to the pumper/quint.
Characteristics used to describe the firehose include the type of construction and the materials used, the internal diameter, and the type of couplings used to make connections.
In general fire hose is used as either supply hose or attack hose
Supply hose and attack hose serve different purposes, but they are often needed during the same incident.
Transports water from a fire hydrant or other water supply source to an apparatus equipped with a pump located at or near the fire scene.
Hose that is used by firefighters to combat fires.
Attack hose sources
From the pump-equipped apparatus to a nozzle or nozzles- fire department connection. FDC.
From a building standpipe.
To be reliable, fire hose must be constructed of the best materials available, used in an appropriate manner, and maintained according to the manufacturers recommendations.
A hose's measured diameter refers to the internal measurement, not the external diameter which may vary depending on the number and composition of the external jacketing layers.
Firehose is manufactured in a variety of sizes and lengths. Standard on fire hose.
The size of a firehose refers to it inside diameter.
According to NFPA, The internal diameter of a firehose should not be less than the advertised or labeled size of the hose, which means that The diameter of the hose is no less then its actual internal diameter
Both attack and supply fire hose are manufactured in 50 or 100 feet lengths. These lengths are referred to as sections.
The traditional length of a fire hose in North America is 50 feet per section.
Suction hose also called intake hose
Used to connect the pumper to a hydrant or other water source. Is manufactured in minimum length specified in NFPA 1901.
Soft sleeve hose
Is a minimum of 15 feet in length, has two female or non threaded couplings, and is used to connect the main pumper intake to the pumper connection on the fire hydrant.
Historically referred to as soft suction hose, soft sleeve hose is not rigid and cannot be used for drafting because it will collapse.
Soft sleeve hoses range in size from 2.5 to 6 inches in diameter.
Hard suction hose
Is generally constructed in 10 foot long sections and is designed for drafting water from static water supplies or connecting to a fire hydrant. Ranges in size from 2 1/2 to 6 inches in diameter.
Types of fire hose couplings.
Are designed to connect hose sections to form a continuous hoseline and to connect fire hoses to nozzles, hydrants, pumper connections, and fire department connections.
To ensure compatibility between all brands of firehose,NFPA 1963 , standard for fire hose connections specifies fire hose coupling design and construction.
All threaded couplings must meet the dimensions required of America national fire hose connection screw threads, commonly called national hose - NH.
Fire hose couplings are made of durable, rest/proof materials that are designed to couple and uncouple quickly and with little effort.
Materials used for a fire hose couplings - brass, aluminum, or magnesium.
Couplings are categorized by the way they are manufactured. 3 coupling types.
Cast iron: very weak, and crack.
Extruded: made of aluminum or aluminum alloy, allowing for their lightweight and high strength.
Drop forged: made of brass or other metal, they are the strongest and most expensive of the 3 couplings
Both attack hose and supply hose may be equipped with either threaded or non-threaded couplings.
Male or female coupling with a spiral thread.
Coupling with no distinct male or female components. Also known as storz coupling or sexless coupling.
The swivel allows the connection of two sections of hose without twisting the entire hose.
Each section of hose with threaded couplings has a male coupling on one end and a female coupling at the other end.
Together the two couplings are referred to as a set.
Connect couplings hand tight to avoid damage to the coupling and gasket!!!!
Portion of a coupling that serves as a point of attachment to the hose
Higbee cut. Also called blunt start.
Special cut at the beginning of the thread on a hose coupling. Prevents cross threading when couplings are connected.
Higbee indicators - indentation
Notches or grooves cut into coupling lugs to identify by touch or sight the exact location of the higbee cut
The Higbee indicator provides a marker of the location of the higbee cut to aid a team connecting lengths of fire hose to get a quick and correct connection.
Coarse threads allow the couplings to be connected quickly.
A removable rubber gasket located inside the base of the female coupling ensures a tight fit and reduces the chance of water leaks.
Threaded couplings are manufactured with either lugs or handles to aid in tightening and loosening the connection
Lugs are grasping the points where firefighters can easily hold the coupling when making and breaking coupling connections.
Special wrench that fits against the lugs, often referred to as spanners. Primarily used to tighten or loosen hose couplings, can also be used as a prying tool or a gas key.
Three types of lugs are found today: rocker lug, recessed lug, and pin lug.
Modern threaded couplings have rounded rocker lugs. The rounded shape helps prevent the hose from catching on objects.
Different styles of lugs serve the same purpose of providing grip for responders connecting hose length.
Lugs are located on the shank of the male coupling and on the swivel of a female coupling.
A rubber mallet may be used to loosen or tighten couplings during drafting operations.
NON THREADED COUPLINGS.
Connected with locks or cams rather than screw threads.
Non-threaded sexless coupling commonly found on large diameter hose. non-threaded fire hose couplings have been used in the North American fire and emergency services since the early 1900s. With this type of coupling, the meeting of two couplings is achieved with locks or cams without the use of screw threads.
There are two kinds of sexless couplings: quarter turn and storz.
Quarter turn coupling - has two hook like lugs on each coupling, rotates 90 degrees to lock.
Nonthreaded coupling advantages:
Fire hose can be quickly connected. No risk of cross threading.
Nonthreaded couplings have disadvantages: large debris can become lodged inside the couplings grooves.
Hose can become uncoupled, often suddenly and violently, if a complete connection has not been made. Hydrants require an adapter to make connections with non threaded couplings.
CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF FIRE HOSE DAMAGE.
Damage that can occur to the exterior covering and the inner lining of the firehose include: mechanical damage, thermal damage, organic damage, chemical damage, corrosion, age deterioration.
Occurs when contact with an object or surface causes slices, rips, and abrasions on the exterior covering, crush or damaged couplings, or cracked inner linings.
Practices recommended to help prevent mechanical damage- Open and close nozzles, valves, and hydrants slowly to limit excessive stress and prevent water hammer.
Avoid laying or pulling a hose over rough sharp edges. Clear windowsills of broken glass fragments. Provide traffic control to prevent vehicles from driving over hose.
Clean hose before reloading it to prevent abrasions from dirt or grit.
Thermal damage, can result from exposure to excess heat or cold temperatures. Excessive heat exposure or direct flame contact can char, melts, or weekend the outer jacket and dehydrate the rubber lining.
To prevent thermal damage, follow these recommended practices.
Hose bed covers reduce thermal damage to large amounts of hose stored in an apparatus. Avoid laying fire hose on hot pavement to dry.
Cold damage occurs when water on the inside and or the outside of a firehose freezes. Use the following guidelines to prevent hose from freezing.
Immediately drain and roll hose that is no longer needed for firefighting. Apply a manufacturer approved, cold weather lubricant that contains an anti-freeze agent on the swivel and gasket portions of the couplings.
Organic damage: mildew and mold are living organisms, fungus that can rot natural fibers.
When stored wet, rot from mold and mildew me weaken the jacket of the hose which can lead to raptures under pressure.
Preventing mildew and mold on natural fiber woven jacket hose
Remove all wet hose from the apparatus after a fire and replace it with dry hose. Inspect, wash, and dry hose that has been contaminated in any way. Inspect and test hose annually and after possible damage or freezing.
Wash hose immediately whenever mildew is discovered
Steps: 1. Scrub the cover jacket with a very mild soap or bleach solution. 2. Rinse well. 3. Dry completely or to the point recommended in the manufacturers instructions. 4. Inspect hose for reappearance of mildew.
Chemical damage: certain chemicals and chemical vapors can damage the outer jacket on fire hose or cause the rubber lining to separate from the inner jacket.
Common examples of chemical damage firefighters are likely to encounter
Exposure to petroleum products, paints, assets, alkalis May we can hose to the point of bursting under pressure:
Motor oil, found on the streets and highways were hoses lead, it will penetrate the woven outer cover and cause a reaction that separates the inner lining of the hose.
Gasoline contact will also react to separate the inner lining of the hose, but has a much quicker and more severe reaction.
Water that is not drained completely from the hose can form sulfuric acid, which weakens or destroys the liner
After exposure to chemicals or chemical vapors, hose should be cleaned as soon as is practical. Recommended practices are as follows
Place the hose 2 to 4 feet away from the curb or gutter but not in vehicle travel lanes. If possible move the hose onto the sidewalk or into a median to avoid vehicle and contamination damage.
Remove hose periodically from the apparatus, wash it with plain water, and dry thoroughly.
Test how properly if there is any suspicion of damage. Dispose of hose according to Standard operating procedure's if it has been exposed to hazardous materials and cannot be decontaminated
A deck brush plus a solution of bicarbonate of soda and water should be used on a hose that has been exposed to acid's or other chemicals.
Corrosion: is a chemical process in which a metal is attacked by some substance in its environment and converted to an unwanted compound that gradually weakens or destroys the metal
Brass is highly resistant to corrosion. Overtime however, a brass coupling will corrode when it is in contact with moist organic material or earth. When this happens the metal will darken and turn green.
Corrosion can happen on the inside of female swivels or inside surfaces of nozzles, reducing the ease of the devices operation.
Normal cleaning remove most of the surface corrosion, however, the only way to free the swivels or operating mechanisms is to lubricate moving parts according to the manufacturers recommendations.
Aluminum couplings develop a layer of corrosion -aluminum oxide- that in effect "seals" the metal against further oxidation.
Age deterioration: if firehose is left in an apparatus bed for a long time, the hose can deteriorate and crack because of the sharp folds in the tightly - packed hose load.
To prevent this, hose lubes should be removed and repacked every six months if they are not used.
Because firehose that is loaded on edge wears more quickly, manufacturers recommend using a flat load.
Firehose will also deteriorate if it is left hanging in a hose tower for excessive periods of time. The inner lining of hose can become weekend at the point where it hangs over the support peg.
Care for firehose
Always follow the manufacturers instructions and department SOP's for hose care and maintenance.
INSPECTION, CARE, AND MAINTENANCE OF FIRE HOSE.
Through inspections, care, and maintenance can significantly extend the working life a firehose. The techniques of washing and drying and the provisions for storage are very important functions in the care of fire hose.
According to NFPA 1962, hose should be inspected and service tested within 90 days before being placed in service for the first time and at least annually thereafter.
Each time a section of hose is used, weather for emergency incidents or training, it needs to be inspected to ensure that it is free of visible soil or damage
Check couplings for ease of operation, Any deformations, or other visible damage.
Before fire howe and couplings are stored or places back in service after use, correct or report any of the following deficiences.
Dirt and debris on the hose jacket or couplings. Damage to the hose jacket. Damage to male or female threads. Obstructed operation of the swivel. Absence of well fitting gasket in the swivel.
Before placing hose or coupling back into service closely examine and correct any damage
loose coupling, absence of gasket, or damage to threads.
The method used to wash fire hose depends on the type of hose.
Hard-rubber hose, hard intake hose, and rubber-jacket collapsible hose only require rinsing with water, although a mild soap may be used if necessary.
following use, lighting-soiled hose may be cleaned with a low-pressure hose.
When fire hose has been exposed to oil, it should be washed with a mild soap or detergent using common scrub brushes or straw brooms. Make sure that the oil is completely removed.
Drying hose: fire who should be dried before being stored. The methods used to dry hose depend on the type of hose
Hose should be dried in accordance with SOP's and manufacturers recommendations.
Woven- jacket hose must be thoroughly dried before being reloaded on an apparatus. Hard rubber booster hose, hard intake hose and synthetic jacket collapsible hose may be placed back on the apparatus while wet with no ill effects.
Hose towers and drying racks must have adequate ventilation and protection so that firehoses not exposed to excessive temperatures or direct sunlight.
When drying hose in hose towers or on racks:
- remove hose from exterior hose towers as soon as it is dry to protect it from Sun damage. Cover male threads with precut sections of tubkng to provide additional protection.
Storing hose- after hose has been washed and dried, roll and store it in racks in a manner that protects them from damage.
Hose that is stored in fire apparatus room/bay may be exposed to cleaning solvents, lubricants, oils, diesel fumes, and other airborne contaminants.
Never store solvents, petroleum products, or other chemicals close to fire hose and couplings.
Precautions to follow to prevent damage to hose stored in racks
Roll the hose with the male end inside the role to protect the male coupling threads.
Care of fire hose couplings
Avoid dropping or dragging. Inspect couplings when hose is washed and dried. Inspect gasket.
Hose appliances, devices that flow water
Has a variety of different connections
Hose tools, devices that assist with the movement, handling, protection, and connecting of hose.
Water flows through appliances but NOT through tools!
Hose appliances include valves and valve - control devices such as wyes, Siameses, water thieves, large-diameter hose appliances, and hydrant valve, as well as fittings such as adapters and intake strainers.
Wye- hose appliance
Hose appliance with one female inlet and multiple male outlets, usually smaller than the inlet. Outlets are also usually gated
Siamese- hose appliance
Hose appliance used to combine two or more hose lines into one. The Siamese has multiple female inlets and a single male outlet. An example of a Siamese is a fire department connection.
Water thief- hose appliance
Any of a variety of hose appliances with one female inlet for 2 1/2 inch or larger hose and with three gated outlets, usually two 1 1/2 outlets and one 2 1/2 inch outlet.
Adapter- hose appliance
Device for connecting hose couplings with dissimilar threads but with the same inside diameter
Fitting - hose appliance
Device that facilitates the connection of hose lines to provide an uninterrupted flow of extinguishing agent
Valves: the following valves in hose lines, at hydrants and at pumpers are used to control the flow of water!
Ball valves; used in discharges and gated wyes.
The internal ball shut off component has a hole through it center, which provides a waterway designed to minimize friction loss when it is open fully.
Used to control the flow from a hydrant. A gate valve slides a disk into and out of the water flow to control the pressure allowed through the nozzle
Rotates a disk to control water flow.
Used in Siamese appliances and fire department connections to follow water to flow in One Direction only.
Clapper valves prevent water from flowing out of unused ports when one intake hose is connected and charged before the addition of more hose.
Valve devices: wye appliance, Siamese appliances, water thief appliances, large diameter hose appliances, hydrant valves.
Valve device- wye appliance
Used to divide a single hose line into two or more lines. Ball valves are generally used in gated wyes. For high water volume operations, wyes with a large diameter hose LDH inlet and two 2 and a half outlets are used
A gated wye is used to supply two hoses using the same water supply.
While wyes divide a single hose line into multiple lines, a Siamese combines multiple lines into ONE line.
Large diameter hose appliance
Some fire fighting operations require water to be distributed at various points along the main supply line. In these cases LDH WATER THIEF CAN BE USED.
Hydrant valves : available for use in supply-line operations.
These valves are used when a forward lay is made from a low-pressure hydrant to the fire scene.
A hydrant valve has 4 main functions
Allows additional hose lines to be late to the hydrant. Connect supply pumper to the hydrant. Boosts the pressure in the original supply line without interrupting the flow of water in the line.
Used to connect hose of different diameters and thread types or to protect the couplings on standpipes and on apparatus intakes and outlets.
Two types of fittings- reducers and adapters.
An adapter is a fitting for connecting hose couplings with similar threads and the same inside diameter.
They are used to connect a small - diameter hose line to the end of a larger one.
Intake strainers: Devices attached to the drafting and of a hard - suction hose when pumping from a static water source.
They are designed to help keep debris from entering the apparatus or portable pump.
Hose tools, used to protect, move, handle, store, and connect hose.
Common hose tools include: hose clamp, spanner wrench, hydrant wrench, and rubber mallet. Hose strap.
Protect hose from the mechanical damage of dragging hose over sharp corners such as roof edges and windowsills.
May be used to allow a damaged hose line to continue operating at full pressure despite a rupture or leak.
Hose clamp: stops the flow of water in a hose line for the following reasons.
to allow extension of a hose line without stopping the water supply.
Allows extension of a charged hose line.
Unless applied correctly a hose clamp can injure fire fighters or damage hose.
Hose clamp rules:
Apply the hose clamp at least 20 feet behind the apparatus. Apply the hose clamp approximately 5 feet from the coupling on the supply side. Close and open the hose clamp slowly to prevent water hammer.
Stand to one side when applying or releasing any type of hose clamp. The operating handle or frame can snap open suddenly
Tool used to open or close a hydrant and to remove hydrant caps.
Some of the most common tools used to tighten or loosen hose couplings are the spanner wrench, hydrant wrench, and the rubber mallet
Spanner wrench- used to tighten and loosen couplings, it has key features that can also be used for
Wedge for prying. Opening that fits gas utility valves. Slot for pulling nails. Flat surface for hammering
Used to strike the lugs to tighten or loosen intake hose couplings.
Hose bridge ramp
Hose bridges provide a channel for the hose to pass through to prevent the hose from becoming contaminated or damaged
Protect the hose line from abrasion during routine use.
Hose rolls- straight roll, donut roll, twin donut roll and self locking twin donut roll.
Straight roll :common for fire academy:
Features a simple coil of hose beginning with the male end on the center and the female on the out.
To indicate that a section of hose must be repaired or tested before being placed back in service use a variation of the straight roll.
This role is begun at the female coupling so that when the roll is completed, the male coupling is exposed. Another method is to tie a not in the exposed end or attach a tag indicating the type and location of damage.
Begins with the center of the hose in the middle and the male and female couplings at the outside at opposite ends of the role
Advantages of a donut roll
The firefighter has control of both couplings, which protects them from damage. Hose rolls out easier with fewer twists or kinks.
Hose bed: main hose - carrying area of a pumper or other apparatus designed for hearing those
NFPA 1901 Standard for automotive fire apparatus, lists the minimum quantity of hose in various sizes to be carried on a standard pumper or engine.
There must be a minimum of 800 feet of 2 1/2 or larger fire supply hose and 400 feet of 1 1/2 inch, one and three-quarter inch, or 2 inch attack firehose
The three most common loads for supply hose lines are the flat, accordion, and horseshoe
Flat load: hose lies flat with successive layers one upon the other
It is suitable for any size of supply hose and is the best way to load large diameter hose
Accordion load - arrangement a firehose in a hose bed or compartment in which the hose lies on edge with the Folds adjacent to each other.
An accordion load is easy to load, only requiring two or three people to load the hose, although 4 people are best.
Horse shoe load- named for the way it appears after loading. It is loaded oh n edge, the hose is laid in a U shaped configuration.
Two people are required to make the shoulder folds for the carry.
This load permits the apparatus to make a forward lady from the water source to the fire followed by a reverse lay back to the water source.
A combination load allows an apparatus to perform a forward lay from the water source by exposing the female coupling on one half of the bed in the male coupling on the other half
High rise pack
High rise packs are assembled to provide enough attack hose for firefighters to operate from a standpipe connection and still be light enough for one person to carry
High rise packs contain needed resources and minimize the quantity of tools each fire fighter must carry.
Hose loading guidelines
Check gaskets and swivel before connecting any coupling. Tighten the couplings hand tight, never use wrenches or excessive force.
Make a short fold or reverse bend called a Dutchman, in the hose during the loading process so couplings are not too close to the front or the rear of the hose bed
The Dutchman serves 2 purposes: 1. It changes direction of coupling. 2. It changes location of coupling
Hose loading guidelines continued
Load large diameter hose 3 1/2 inch or larger with all couplings near the front of the bed. This saves space and allows the hose to lie flat. Do not pack hose too tightly. As a general rule a gloved hand can be easily inserted between the folds.
PRE CONNECTED HOSE LOADS FOR ATTACK LINES.
Attack hose connected to a discharge when the hose is loaded; this shortens the time it takes to deploy the hose for firefighting
Pre connects are primarily used for fire attack.
Are generally 50 to 250 feet in length.
Pre connected attack hose lines can be carried on: longitudinal beds, tailboard compartments, front number wells, reels.
Pre connected flat load
Commonly arranged with exposed loops to aid in pulling the load from the bed. The number of loops depends on size and total length of the hose.
Minuteman load * designed to maximize the efficiency of narrow hose beds.
Is designed to be pulled and advanced by one person. This load can be carried on the shoulder, completely clear of the ground, which makes it less likely that the hose will catch on obstacles.
Booster hose line is used for extinguishing low-intensity fires and overhaul operations
booster lines are not appropriate for Interior firefighting operations or for vehicle fires because they do not deliver a sufficient volume of water to protect firefighters these conditions suddenly deteriorate.
SUPPLY HOSE LAYS
Three basic lays- forward lay, reverse lay, and combination lay.
Hose is either laid forward from a water source to the incident scene, reverse from the incident scene to a water source, or a combination with one hoseline laid from the water source to the incident scene and one back
Deploying from a forward lay consists of stopping the apparatus at the hydrant and allowing a firefighter to safely leave the apparatus and secure the hose.
The primary advantage of a forward lay is that a pumper can remain at the incident scene so it's hose, equipment, and tools are readily available if needed.
Four-way hydrant valve
Allows a forward - laid supply line to be immediately charged and allows a later - arriving pumper to connect to the hydrant.
The fire fighter making the hydrant connection must know the following
Proper procedures for securing and connecting to the hydrant and, correct operation of the hydrant valve if one is used.
Making the hydrant connection.
Local SOP's and resources may dictate the method used for connecting the fire hose to the hydrant in a forward hose lay operation.
When a pumper must first go to the fire location before laying s supply line, a reverse hose lay should be deployed from the incident scene to the water source
A reverse hose lay featuring a wye allows one hose line to be used in a two-direction attack on the fire.
Combination lay refers to any of a number of ways to lay multiple supply hose with a single engine.
To make a combination lay, the hose must be loaded into the hose bed in two separate hose bed compartments.
Hose lines in the same diameter can be laid these ways
Two lines laid forward.
Two lines laid reverse.
Forward lay followed by a reverse lay.
Hose adapter fittings will be needed when threaded hose couplings are used in any reverse hose lay.
HANDLING HOSE LINES. To effectively attack and extinguish a fire, hose lines must be removed from the apparatus and advances to the location of the fire.
Hose lines may be loaded pre connected to a discharge outlet or simply placed in the hose bed unconnected.
Deploying pre connected hose lines
The minute man load is intended to be deployed without dragging the hose on the ground.
Advancing hose lines - once hose lines have been laid out from the attack pumper, they must be advanced into position for applying water to the fire.
Advancing a charged hose line
The working line drag is one of the quickest and easiest ways to advance a charged hose line at ground level.
Advancing hose into a structure. General safety guidelines.
Check for and remove kinks and Bends from the hose line as it is advanced. Bleed air from the hose line as it is being charged and before entering the building or fire area.
General safety guidelines for advancing a hose line into a structure.
All members of the hose team on the same side of the hose line. Check for heat using the back of a gloved hand. Stay low and avoid blocking ventilation openings. Check self-closing doors to prevent the door from closing and pinching the hose line.
Advancing hose up and down a stairway- can be very difficult when conditions allow, the hose line should be advanced on charged.
The shoulder carry works well for stairway advancement because the hose is carried instead of dragged and is deployed as needed.
The minute man load and Carry is also excellent for use on stairways. Lay the uncharged hose against the outside wall to keep the stairs as clear as possible and avoid shirt bends and kinks in the hose.
When it is necessary to advance a charged hose line up a stairway, excess hose should be deployed on the stairs toward the floor above the fire floor.
Advancing hose from a standpipe.
One approach is to have preassembled hose rolls, bundles or packs on the apparatus ready to carry aloft and connect to the building standpipe system
Fire crews connect their attack lines to a standpipe outlet near the point of attack usually on the floor below the fire
If the standpipe connection is in an enclosed stairway, it is acceptable to connect on the fire floor.
By connecting to the standpipe on the floor below the fire floor, you can get a general idea of the floor thats on fire.
If one and a half, one and three quarters, or two inch hose is used, placing a gated wye on the standpipe outlet will permit the attachment of a second attack hose if needed.
When advancing two lines from the same standpipe connection, one hoseline should place it slack on a higher staircase and the other hoseline should place its slack on a lower staircase to minimize the chances of Entanglement.
Improvising a standpipe - most building codes mandate the installation of standpipes and structures three stories and higher
There are two methods for improvising standpipes - the interior stairway stretch and the outside stretch.
Interior stairway stretch
Hose rolls or bundles can be carried up the stairs, secured to a handrail and the end lowered to the point where another section is attached to it. Secure the hose to the handrails for support at appropriate intervals to reduce the tendency of water weight to pull the hose back down once the hose is charged
Outside stretch- can be used for lower floors of high-rise buildings. Supply hose can be hoisted up the exterior of the building to the desired floor using a rope
Due to the weight of the charged hose line the hose can be extended into windows and secured to available anchor points inside the building at an interval about every three stories
Advancing up a ladder - when standpipes are not available but stairways are accessible, one of the safest ways to get hose to an upper story is to carry it up the stairs in a bundle and lower the female end over a balcony railing or out a window to connect to a water source
If standpipes are not available, stairways are not accessible, or there is no other variable option, it may be necessary to advance the hose up a ground ladder or aerial device
Do you not exceed the rated weight capacity of the ladder. If the hose cannot be passed up the ladder without exceeding the load limit, it should be hoisted up!
Operating attack hose Lines- as a firefighter assigned to an attack hose line, it is your job to extinguish the fire quickly and effectively with the minimum amount of water while still protecting yourself and your teammates.
Operating small hose lines
One or two firefighters can operate small hose lines, such as booster lines and one and a half, one and three quarters and two inch hose lines.
One fire fighter method- assigning one firefighter to operate an attack hoseline only occurs when combating a small groundcover fire, rubbish or transpire, vehicle fire, small structure fire, or during overhaul operations.
Two firefighter method- two firefighters are the minimum number required for handling any attack line during interior structural operations
Be the back up firefighter is responsible for keeping the whole street behind the nozzle operator
Operating large hose lines - 2 and a half and 3 inch or larger hose.
One firefighter method for handling large hose lines
During exposure protection or overhaul operations, one firefighter may be assigned to operate a large hoseline if a master stream device is not available
Two firefighter method
Use hose straps or rope hose tools to assist in anchoring the hose. The back up firefighter serves as an anchor about 3 feet back.
Controlling a loose hose line- A loose hose line is one in which water under pressure is flowing through a nozzle, an open butt, or a rupture, and is out of control
Closing a valve at the pump or hydrant to stop the flow of water is the safest way to control a loose hose line. Another method is to play hose clamp at the stationary point in the hose line.
If necessary, water flow may be stopped by kinking the hose. This does not apply to law in diameter hose due to its size and weight when charged.
Replacing a burst section of hose.
Two additional sections of hose should be used to replace any one bad section because hose lines stretch to longer lengths when under pressure.
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