Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account


The first opening in development, the blastopore, becomes the embryo's anus. Ex) Protochordates, chordates, echinoderms


Undergoes spiral cleavage, and the mouth forms before the anus.


a cavity in the mesoderm of an embryo that gives rise in humans to the pleural cavity and pericardial cavity and peritoneal cavity


The opening of the archenteron in the gastrula that develops into the mouth in protostomes and the anus in deuterostomes


the middle germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue


the outer germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue


the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems

Radial Symmetry

the property of symmetry about an axis

Bilateral Symmetry

arrangement of body parts so there are distinct left and right halves that mirror each other


an animal that lacks a coelom, or body cavity


coelom is actually a fluid-filled remnant of the blastocoel; ex: nematodes


Having two germ layers.


has three germ layers: the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm.


concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animal's body

Which inverts lack cephalization?


What characteristic is not found in radially symmetrical invertebrates?

2. No backbone

What is the sequence in which major invertebrate features evolved?

1. Multicellularity
2. tissues
3. Bilateral symmetry
4. Body cavity
5. Coelom
6. Endoskeleton
7. Segmentation

What organism has a hydrostatic skeleton with a closed circulatory system and uses nephridia to remove nitrogenous waste?



external skeleton; tough external covering that protects and supports the body of many invertebrates

Intracellular digestion

type of digestion in which food is digested inside specialized cells that pass nutrients to other cells by diffusion

What organism uses intracellular digestion?


Gastrovascular cavity

digestive chamber with a single opening, in which cnidarians, flatworms, and echinoderms digest food

Digestive tract

The organs through which food passes during the process of being digested. These include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Differences between Digestive tract and gastrovascular cavity

The digestive tract has two openings

What group of invertebrates uses gills for gas exchange?

Arthropoda; also used by echinodermata

What is required of a respiratory membrane?

It must be moist

Where does gas exchange happen in insects?


Open Circulatory System

A circulatory system that allows the blood to flow out of the blood vessels and into various body cavities so that the cells are in direct contact with the blood ex. mollusks, arthropods

Closed Circulatory System

a circulatory system in which the oxygen-carrying blood cells never leave the blood vessels. ex. vertebrates and earthworms

Excretory system

group of organs including the kidneys, liver, skin, large intestine and lungs that purify the body by the elimination of waste matter

A vertebrate is any chordate that has ____

A backbone

What kind of circulatory system does a fish have?

A closed loop circulatory system

Difference between endoderm and ectoderm

Inner layer of cells in the gastrula is the endoderm and it develops into the digestive organs; outer layer of cells is the ectoderm and it becomes the nervous tissue and skin

What group of vertebrates have a four chambered heart?

Warm-blooded animals. Endotherms

Alveoli function?

thin-walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place

Gas exchange in frogs?

On the surface of wrinkled skin

Medulla oblongata?

lower or hindmost part of the brain
Controls involuntary, automatic functions
(i.e. breathing, heart rate, blood pressure)

Mammal characteristics?

All mammals are warm blooded. Most young are born alive. They have hair or fur on their bodies. Every mammal is a vertebrate. All mammals have lungs to breathe air. Mammals feed milk to their babies.

What type of circulatory system does a mammal have?

Closed circulatory system

What part of a mammal's brain has a well developed cerebral cortex?

The cerebrum.
(Also known as gray matter)

Egg-laying mammals



an external abdominal pouch in most marsupials where newborn offspring are suckled


the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus

DNA nucleotide

nitrogen bases A,T,G,C; deoxyribose, phosphate group


(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division

Base pair rules

Thymine with Adenine. Guanine with Cytosine.

DNA and RNA difference

DNA contains deoxyribose sugar; RNA contains ribose sugar
RNA uses Uracil instead of Thymine
DNA is double stranded; RNA is single stranded

Types of RNA

messenger, ribosomal, transfer


process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

Central nervous system function

Integration, processing, coordination


transmits nerve impulses across a synapse


the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance

Neuron parts

cell body - contains nucleus - regulates production of proteins within cell
dendrites - branched structures that extend from cell body, receive info anf transmit impulses
axons - transmit impulses away from cell body and toward another neuron, muscle cell, or glan

Smallest functional unit of nervous system


Sense organs are part of

Sensory system / nervous system

Peripheral nervous system

division that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body; includes all sensory and motor neurons; divided into somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

What do ligaments and tendons attach to?

Ligaments attach bone to bone
Tendons attach muscle to bone

What is the function of the valves of the heart?

Prevent blood from flowing backwards

What organ regulates blood pressure?

The kidneys

What blood cells carry hemoglobin?

Red Blood cells

Structure for air and food


What controls breathing?

Lungs and heart and central nervous system

What's the food tube between the pharynx and the stomach?


Oxygen diffuses from the ____ to the _____

alveoli; blood

What passes waste to the rectum?

The large intestine

Nephron parts

glomerulus, a Bowman's capsule, a proximal convoluted tubule, a distal convoluted tubule, and a collecting duct (tubule).

Kidney activity is controlled by

hormones and blood composition

Function of the endocrine system

Regulate body activity and responses to stimuli through the use of hormones

Produces sex hormones


Function of the adrenal gland

Epinephrine, norepinephrine, "Fight or Flight", balances salt and water concentration

How many ova do ovaries produce?

1-2 million

Structure that produces sperm


Function of memory B cells

secrete antibodies that bind to nametags on bad guys in specific immune response


foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.

HIV kills

Killer T cells

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording