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Minerals/the mohs hardness scale
This scale is a scale in which it tests how hard the rock is on a scale of 1-10
Crystals ocurr naturally, they have strait edges and flat sides but regular angles
The colour of a mineral in powdered form; a property useful in the identification of minerals
The breaking of a mineral split into jagged, rough pieces where breakage is not controlled by cleavage
A type of pure substance (made of one type of particle or atom) that cannot be broken down into smaller arts by chemical means and that has a unique set of properties
The type of rock that is formed by the solidification of hot magma; it is defined as either intrusive or extrusive
The type of igneous rock formed when magma cools and solidifies below earth's crust
The type of igneous rock formed when magma (lava) cools and solidifies above earth's crust
The most common type of rock on earth's surface; formed by the compacting of sediment (loose materials, such as minerals and organic remains)
melted rock, formed under earth's crust by high temperature and pressure; magma occasionally escapes to earth's surface as lava
A type of rock made when high pressure and heat act on another type of rock and change it into a new form
The process by which sedimentary rock is formed from sediment, through the weight and pressure of water and other sediment
The mineral (non-‐organic) matter (rock, soil, clay) from which the soil developed
The naturally occurring process in which rocks continue to change from over long periods of time
The dark-‐coloured part of soil that is rich in nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur
A description of the characteristics of the different layers that make up a particular soil
The process of moving soil and rock from one place to another; mechanical weathering caused by the effects of wind and/or water
The process in which rocks are broken down and sediment in formed by mechanical, chemical or biological weathering
A process of mechanical weathering that occurs when water goes through a cycle of freezing and thawing; the water expands and contracts in the cracks of a rock, eventually breaking the rock apart
The break-‐up or disintegration of rocks through the effects of chemical reactions upon them
The break-‐up or disintegration of rocks through the physical or chemical effects of living organisms
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