39 terms

Planet Earth for masters

flash cards for planet earth
Minerals/the mohs hardness scale
This scale is a scale in which it tests how hard the rock is on a scale of 1-10
Crystals ocurr naturally, they have strait edges and flat sides but regular angles
The light-‐reflecting properties, or "shininess", of minerals
Of a mineral, the characteristic of splitting along smooth, flat planes
The colour of a mineral in powdered form; a property useful in the identification of minerals
The breaking of a mineral split into jagged, rough pieces where breakage is not controlled by cleavage
The thin, outermost layer of the earth
A type of pure substance (made of one type of particle or atom) that cannot be broken down into smaller arts by chemical means and that has a unique set of properties
The Next Section Rocks
Rocks/Igneous Rock
The type of rock that is formed by the solidification of hot magma; it is defined as either intrusive or extrusive
Rocks/Intrusive Rock
The type of igneous rock formed when magma cools and solidifies below earth's crust
Rocks/Extrusive Rock
The type of igneous rock formed when magma (lava) cools and solidifies above earth's crust
Rocks/Sedimentary Rock
The most common type of rock on earth's surface; formed by the compacting of sediment (loose materials, such as minerals and organic remains)
loose materials such as bits of rock, minerals, and plant and animal remains
melted rock, formed under earth's crust by high temperature and pressure; magma occasionally escapes to earth's surface as lava
The term used for magma when it breaks through earth's crust, as in a volcanic eruption
Rocks/Metamorphic Rock
A type of rock made when high pressure and heat act on another type of rock and change it into a new form
The arrangement of sedimentary rock in visible layers
The process by which sedimentary rock is formed from sediment, through the weight and pressure of water and other sediment
A process by which particles are held together by another material
Rocks/Parent Rock
The mineral (non-‐organic) matter (rock, soil, clay) from which the soil developed
Rocks/Rock Cycle
The naturally occurring process in which rocks continue to change from over long periods of time
The part of soil composed of dead plant matter
The dark-‐coloured part of soil that is rich in nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur
Of soil, containing the nutrients needed for plant growth
Rocks/Soil Profile
A description of the characteristics of the different layers that make up a particular soil
The topmost layer layer of soil, which is dark-‐coloured and rich in humus
The process by which materials from soil are dissolved and carried away by water
Next Topic Erosion
The process of moving soil and rock from one place to another; mechanical weathering caused by the effects of wind and/or water
The process in which rocks are broken down and sediment in formed by mechanical, chemical or biological weathering
Erosion/Frost Weathering
A process of mechanical weathering that occurs when water goes through a cycle of freezing and thawing; the water expands and contracts in the cracks of a rock, eventually breaking the rock apart
The process in which eroded materials in deposited and built up
Erosion/Chemical Weathering
The break-‐up or disintegration of rocks through the effects of chemical reactions upon them
Erosion/Biological Weathering
The break-‐up or disintegration of rocks through the physical or chemical effects of living organisms
The wearing down of rocks by wind, ice, waves, and running water
Next Topic Plates/volcanos/Earthquakes
The middle layer of earth located between the crust and the core, and made of rock
Plates/Continental drift
A theory about earth's structure; according to this theory, the continents have slowly changed their positions over time; the slow movement of continents