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39 terms

Planet Earth for masters

flash cards for planet earth
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Minerals/the mohs hardness scale
This scale is a scale in which it tests how hard the rock is on a scale of 1-10
Minerals/Crystals
Crystals ocurr naturally, they have strait edges and flat sides but regular angles
Minerals/Lustre
The light-‐reflecting properties, or "shininess", of minerals
Minerals/Cleavage
Of a mineral, the characteristic of splitting along smooth, flat planes
Minerals/Streak
The colour of a mineral in powdered form; a property useful in the identification of minerals
Minerals/Fracture
The breaking of a mineral split into jagged, rough pieces where breakage is not controlled by cleavage
Minerals/Crust
The thin, outermost layer of the earth
Minerals/Element
A type of pure substance (made of one type of particle or atom) that cannot be broken down into smaller arts by chemical means and that has a unique set of properties
The Next Section Rocks
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Rocks/Igneous Rock
The type of rock that is formed by the solidification of hot magma; it is defined as either intrusive or extrusive
Rocks/Intrusive Rock
The type of igneous rock formed when magma cools and solidifies below earth's crust
Rocks/Extrusive Rock
The type of igneous rock formed when magma (lava) cools and solidifies above earth's crust
Rocks/Sedimentary Rock
The most common type of rock on earth's surface; formed by the compacting of sediment (loose materials, such as minerals and organic remains)
Rocks/Sediment
loose materials such as bits of rock, minerals, and plant and animal remains
Rocks/Magma
melted rock, formed under earth's crust by high temperature and pressure; magma occasionally escapes to earth's surface as lava
Rocks/Lava
The term used for magma when it breaks through earth's crust, as in a volcanic eruption
Rocks/Metamorphic Rock
A type of rock made when high pressure and heat act on another type of rock and change it into a new form
Rocks/Stratification
The arrangement of sedimentary rock in visible layers
Rocks/Compaction
The process by which sedimentary rock is formed from sediment, through the weight and pressure of water and other sediment
Rocks/Cementation
A process by which particles are held together by another material
Rocks/Parent Rock
The mineral (non-‐organic) matter (rock, soil, clay) from which the soil developed
Rocks/Rock Cycle
The naturally occurring process in which rocks continue to change from over long periods of time
Rocks/Compost
The part of soil composed of dead plant matter
Rocks/Humus
The dark-‐coloured part of soil that is rich in nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur
Rocks/Fertile
Of soil, containing the nutrients needed for plant growth
Rocks/Soil Profile
A description of the characteristics of the different layers that make up a particular soil
Rocks/Topsoil
The topmost layer layer of soil, which is dark-‐coloured and rich in humus
Rocks/Leaching
The process by which materials from soil are dissolved and carried away by water
Next Topic Erosion
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Erosion/Erosion
The process of moving soil and rock from one place to another; mechanical weathering caused by the effects of wind and/or water
Erosion/Weathering
The process in which rocks are broken down and sediment in formed by mechanical, chemical or biological weathering
Erosion/Frost Weathering
A process of mechanical weathering that occurs when water goes through a cycle of freezing and thawing; the water expands and contracts in the cracks of a rock, eventually breaking the rock apart
Erosion/Sedimentation
The process in which eroded materials in deposited and built up
Erosion/Chemical Weathering
The break-‐up or disintegration of rocks through the effects of chemical reactions upon them
Erosion/Biological Weathering
The break-‐up or disintegration of rocks through the physical or chemical effects of living organisms
Erosion/Abrasion
The wearing down of rocks by wind, ice, waves, and running water
Next Topic Plates/volcanos/Earthquakes
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Plates/Mantle
The middle layer of earth located between the crust and the core, and made of rock
Plates/Continental drift
A theory about earth's structure; according to this theory, the continents have slowly changed their positions over time; the slow movement of continents