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flash cards for planet earth

Minerals/the mohs hardness scale

This scale is a scale in which it tests how hard the rock is on a scale of 1-10


Crystals ocurr naturally, they have strait edges and flat sides but regular angles


The light-‐reflecting properties, or "shininess", of minerals


Of a mineral, the characteristic of splitting along smooth, flat planes


The colour of a mineral in powdered form; a property useful in the identification of minerals


The breaking of a mineral split into jagged, rough pieces where breakage is not controlled by cleavage


The thin, outermost layer of the earth


A type of pure substance (made of one type of particle or atom) that cannot be broken down into smaller arts by chemical means and that has a unique set of properties

The Next Section Rocks


Rocks/Igneous Rock

The type of rock that is formed by the solidification of hot magma; it is defined as either intrusive or extrusive

Rocks/Intrusive Rock

The type of igneous rock formed when magma cools and solidifies below earth's crust

Rocks/Extrusive Rock

The type of igneous rock formed when magma (lava) cools and solidifies above earth's crust

Rocks/Sedimentary Rock

The most common type of rock on earth's surface; formed by the compacting of sediment (loose materials, such as minerals and organic remains)


loose materials such as bits of rock, minerals, and plant and animal remains


melted rock, formed under earth's crust by high temperature and pressure; magma occasionally escapes to earth's surface as lava


The term used for magma when it breaks through earth's crust, as in a volcanic eruption

Rocks/Metamorphic Rock

A type of rock made when high pressure and heat act on another type of rock and change it into a new form


The arrangement of sedimentary rock in visible layers


The process by which sedimentary rock is formed from sediment, through the weight and pressure of water and other sediment


A process by which particles are held together by another material

Rocks/Parent Rock

The mineral (non-‐organic) matter (rock, soil, clay) from which the soil developed

Rocks/Rock Cycle

The naturally occurring process in which rocks continue to change from over long periods of time


The part of soil composed of dead plant matter


The dark-‐coloured part of soil that is rich in nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur


Of soil, containing the nutrients needed for plant growth

Rocks/Soil Profile

A description of the characteristics of the different layers that make up a particular soil


The topmost layer layer of soil, which is dark-‐coloured and rich in humus


The process by which materials from soil are dissolved and carried away by water

Next Topic Erosion



The process of moving soil and rock from one place to another; mechanical weathering caused by the effects of wind and/or water


The process in which rocks are broken down and sediment in formed by mechanical, chemical or biological weathering

Erosion/Frost Weathering

A process of mechanical weathering that occurs when water goes through a cycle of freezing and thawing; the water expands and contracts in the cracks of a rock, eventually breaking the rock apart


The process in which eroded materials in deposited and built up

Erosion/Chemical Weathering

The break-‐up or disintegration of rocks through the effects of chemical reactions upon them

Erosion/Biological Weathering

The break-‐up or disintegration of rocks through the physical or chemical effects of living organisms


The wearing down of rocks by wind, ice, waves, and running water

Next Topic Plates/volcanos/Earthquakes



The middle layer of earth located between the crust and the core, and made of rock

Plates/Continental drift

A theory about earth's structure; according to this theory, the continents have slowly changed their positions over time; the slow movement of continents

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