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147 terms

Body Structure & Directional Terminology

SJC SRGT 1201 Ch 2 (2011)
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hist/o
tissues
stromal tissue
supportive tissue
parenchymal tissue
does the work
epithelial tissue
internal and external covering for organs
connective tissue
bone, blood, fat
muscular tissue
heart, skeletal and visceral muscles
nervous tissue
provides transmission of information to regulate a variety of functions
organ/o, viscer/o
organ
Apex apic/o
pointed extremity of a conical structure
Body corpor/o, som/o, somat/o
the largest or most important part of an organ
Fundus fund/o
base or deepest part of a hollow organ that is the farthest from the mouth of the organ
Fornix fornic/o
any vaultlike or arched structure
Hilum hil/o
area where nerves and vessels enter or exit an organ
Lumen lumin/o
the space within an artery, vein, intestine or tube
Sinus or Antrum sinus/o or antra
a cavity or channel in bone
Vestibule vestibul/o
a small space or cavity at the beginning of a canal
Antrum antra
any nearly closed cavity or chamber (stomach)
Bi-
two
Contra-
opposite; against
Epi-
above; on top of
Ipsi-
same
Meta-
change; beyond
Uni-
one
-ium, -um
structure
-ad
in the direction of; toward
Mid-
middle
Dis-
apart; bad; abnormal
Dys-
bad; difficult; painful; abnormal
mal-
bad; ill
cyt/o
cell
Anatomy
study of the structure of the body
Physiology
study of the function of the body
biopsy
process of viewing living tissue that has been removed for the purpose of diagnosis and/or treatment
necropsy
process of viewing dead tissue
autopsy
process of viewing self; term used commonly for examination of a dead body to determine cause of death
Anterior Ventral
anter/o in front of
Posterior Dorsal
poster/o behind; after
Anteroposterior (AP)
front to back
Posteroanterior (PA)
back to front
Superior Cephalad
cephal/o head
Inferior Caudad
caud/o tail
Medial
medi/o middle
Lateral
later/o side
Ipsilateral
same side
Contralateral
opposite side
Unilateral
one side
Bilateral
two sides
Superficial
on the surface of the body
Deep
away from (below) the surface
Proximal
proxim/o near
Distal
dist/o far
Dextrad
dextr/o to the right
Sinistrad
sinistr/o, levo to the left
Afferent
toward an organ
Efferent
away from an organ
Supine
supination face up
Prone
pronation face down
Palmar
pertaining to palm of hand
Plantar
pertaining to sole of foot
Dorsal cavities
cranial and spinal
Ventral cavities
thoracic (heart & lungs) abdominal (stomach, liver, intestines) pelvic (bladder, reproductive organs)
Mediastinum
mediastin/o space between the lungs
Pleural cavity
space within the double-folded membrane that surrounds the lungs
Abdominal cavity also referred to as
peritoneal cavity
Diaphragm
diaphragm/o, phren/o, diaphragmat/o separates thoracic and abdominal cavities
Peritoneum
peritone/o highly vascular membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
Pelvic cavity
bladder and reproductive organs
Abdominopelvic regions
Left & Right hypochodriac Epigastric Left & Right lumbar Umbilical Left & Right iliac Hypogastric
Abdominopelvic quadrants
RUQ - liver LUQ - stomach & spleen RLQ - appendix & McBurnery's point LLQ - Munro's point
Sagittal plane
separates sides from each other
Midsagittal plane
divides body into equal right & left halves
Frontal or coronal plane
divides body into front and back portions
Transverse plane (cross sectional)
divides the body horizontally into an upper part and lower part
Oblique plane
divides the body as a slanted angle
antrum
antr/o
apex
apic/o
blood
hem/o, hemat/o
body
som/o, somat/o
bone
oste/o, osse/o
cell
cyt/o
dissolve
lys/o
epithelium
epitheli/o
fat
adip/o
fornix
fornic/o
fundus
fund/o
heart muscle
myocardi/o
lumen
lumin/o
muscle
my/o
nerve
neur/o
nipple
thel/o
nucleus
kary/o, nucle/o
organ, viscera
organ/o, viscer/o
ribose
rib/o
sameness
home/o
sinus, cavity
sin/o, sinus/o
skeletal muscle
rhabdomy/o
smooth muscle
leiomy/o
system
system/o
to cast
bol/o
vestibule
vestibul/o
Ana-
up; apart
Cata-
down
-ia, -ism
condition
-plasm
formation
-us
noun ending
bladder
cyst/o, vesic/o
bone marrow, spinal cord
myel/o
hair
pil/o, trich/o
ileum
ile/o
kidney
nephr/o, ren/o
nail
onych/o, ungu/o
ovary
oophor/o, ovari/o
skin
cutane/o, derm/o, dermat/o
small intestine
enter/o
stomach
gastr/o
testis
test/o, orchid/o
ureter
ureter/o
urethra
urethr/o
abdomen
abdomin/o, celi/o, lapar/o
cranium, skull
crani/o
dorsal
dors/o
pelvis
pelv/i
peritoneum
peritone/o
pleura
pleur/o
spine
spin/o
sternum
stern/o
thorax
thorac/o
ventral
ventr/o
vertebra
vertebr/o
cartilage
chondr/o
front
front/o
groin
inguin/o
ileum (small intestinal)
ile/o
ilium (pelvic)
ili/o
loin
lumb/o
umbilicus
omphal/o, umbilic/o
Musculoskeletal system
muscles - my/o, myos/o, muscul/o bones - oste/o, osse/o, oss/i joints - arthr/o, articul/o
Integumentary system
skin - derm/o, dermat/o, cutane/o hair - trich/o, pil/o nails - ungu/o, onych/o
Gastrointestinal system
stomach - gastr/o intestines - ile/o, enter/o
Urinary system
kidneys - ren/o, nephr/o bladder - cyst/o, vesic/o ureters, urethra - ureter/o, urethr/o
Reproductive system
ovaries - oophor/o, ovari/o testes - test/o, orchid/o
Blood, Lymphatic, Immune system
blood cells - erythrocyt/o, leukocyt/o, thrombocyt/o
Cardiovascular system
heart - cardi/o, coron/o vessels - srteri/o, ven/o, phleb/o
Respiratory system
lungs - pulmon/o, pneumon/o bronchi - bronch/o trachea - trache/o
Nervous/Behavioral system
brain - encephal/o, cerebr/o nerves - neur/o mind - ment/i, phren/o, psych/o
Special Senses
eyes - ophthalm/o, ocul/o, opt/o ears - ot/o, aur/o
Endocrine system
pancreas - pancreat/o thyroid - thyroid/o