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here are some notes on the science unit of structures and forces

Causes of Forces

large collisions create big forces and smaller collisions create smaller forces


live load - a load that is always changing
dead load - a load that never changes


Tension, Compression, Bending, Torsion, and Shear

Stable Structures

a structure that is less likely to tip, it is also a key when designing a structure
more stable = wide & low
Spin Stabilization is also a good way of keeping stable


lowest support of a structure

Unbalanced Structures

a structure that has more weight on 1 side then the other
to make a unstable structure into a stable structure you can use cables, put some dead load on the other side or make it symmetrical and have about the same amount af weight of both sides

Types of Ground Foundations

Pilings - large metal, concrete or wood cylinder that is dug into the bedrock
for a road: the making of a solid layer
Smooth asphalt then the Rough asphalt then the Crush then the Gravel

Designing with Forces

you want to distribute the load throughout the structure. no part of the structure to have to carry to much
you also want to direct the forces along angled components so that the forces hold in sued of pull aport
you also want to shape the part to withstand forces that will likely happen

How Structures Fail

lever-changes the amount of force needed on
effort force-a downward force
load force-an upward force

Tension Force


Compression Force


Torsion Force


Bending Force


Shear Force


Stable Loads on a Structure

move the load through out the structure with brace, arch and cantilever

Light but Stable Structures

to make a structure light but stable use I beams, L beams and T beams

Internal Forces, External Forces or Stresses

internal forces - forces acting on the inside of a structure, can cause failure
external forces - forces acting on the outside of the structure, causes internal forces to act upon the structure

Particles in Materials of a Structure

steel - strong forces pulling on its particles in regular arrangement
graphite - particles attract strongly in some directions and almost not at all in others
rubber particles attracts many particles in all directions

Using Frictional Forces

force of friction resists movement between two surfaces that rub together.

Flying Buttresses

columns on the outsides of a structure that connect to the building near the top and are used to support the outer walls in much the same way that two sides of an arch support each other.


Car bumpers are designed to buckle in a collision - as the metal fails, it absorbs some of the energy of the impact, which protects the occupants of the vehicle. Blades of grass on a sports field buckle as players land, which absorbs some of the impact forces on the players body.

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