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Chapter 4 Integumentary & Endocrine Systems

integumentary system & Endocrine system
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The integumentary system consists of...
skin and glands found within the skin, hair, and nails
function of skin...
to protect, regulate temperature, serve as sensory receptor, and secrete sweat and sebum
what information can skin reveal?
warmth, coolness, erythema, cyanosis, elasticity and fullness
how many layers of skin, and the names?
3 - Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous tissue
epidermis - outemost layer of skin
-barrier from the outside, therefore is protective
-receptor for touch, - prevents water loss,
-synthesizes vitamin D
dermis
middle layer of skin
dermis contains?
sweat gland - secrete sweat
SC glands - secrete sebum, any oil/fatty substance
nerves and nerve endings
blood vessels
what does the dermis do?
-regulates temperature; -keeps skin oiled and elastic
-prevents dry scalp by producing sebum
subcutaneous tissue
innermost fatty layer, below the dermis layer
what does the SC tissue do?
-provide body fuel, retain heat, cushions innermost tissues
endocrine system is
series of ductless glands responsible for producing and regulating hormones
primary glands of the endocrine system
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, thymus, and pineal glands
--- and ---, play an important role in the endocrine system
ovaries and testes
primary role of the endocrine system...
work closely with the nervous system to maintain homeostasis
pituitary aka "master gland" is located at?
the base of the brain
what are the pituitary secretions controlled by?
hypothalamus
anterior lobe hormones
growth hormone, prolactin, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH
growth hormone
stimulates cell growth and reproduction
prolactin
women-promotes breast developement and milk production after childbirth
men- stimulates sex hormone production
TSH
controls secretion of thyroid gland hormones
ACTH
controls secretion of certain hormones from the adrenal cortex
FSH
influences the reproductive organs; -men stimulates sperm prod.; -women stimulates estrogen prod.
LH
Females- stimulates ovulation
Men- stimulates testosterone secretion
psterior lobe hormones
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) & oxytocin (OXT)
ADH
reduces excretion of the kidneys, may affect BP
OXT
causes uterine contractions and influences milk prod.
Thyroid gland location
in the anterior part of the neck
Thyroid gland hormones
thyroxine(T4), triiodothyronine(T3), calcitonin
T4 & T3
influences metabolism, protein synthesis, and maturation of the nervous system
calcitonin
decreases blood calcium and phosphate levels
adrenal gland location
at the top of each kidney
Adrenal medulla hormones
epinephrine, norpinephrine
epinephrine
stimulates sympathetic nervous system and increases heart rate; is a vasoconstrictor-increases BP and relaxes bronchioles
norepinephrine
stimulates the sympathetic nervous system
Adrenal cortex hormones
aldosterone, glucocorticoids/cortisol, androgens
aldosterone
helps conserve sodium and water in kidneys, and decreases potassium reabsorption
glucocorticoids/cortisol
influences protein, fat, and glucose metabolism
-influences blood glucose levels and has anti-inflammatory properties
androgens (sex hormones)
promotes sex characteristics and functions
parathyroid location
on posterior surface of the thyroid gland
parathormone (PTH)
works with calcitonon and increases blood calciul and decreases blood phosphate
pacreas location
behind stomach
islets of langerhans (w/i pancreas) secrete hormones
insulin and glucagon
insulin
regulates the transport of glucose to the cells; increase metabolism of carbs and decrease sugar
glocagon
stimulates release of glycogen from liver, promoting increased blood sugar
pineal gland location
third ventricle of the brain
pineal glan hormone
melatonin - regulates sleep-wake cycles
thymus location
behind sternum
thymus hormone
thymosin - affects lymphocyte production
ovarian hormones
estrogen, progesterone
estrogen
promotes secondary sexual characteristics and regulates the menstrual cycle
progesterone
promotes secondary sexual characteristics and prepares the uterus for possible pregnancy
testicular hormones
testerone - promotes secondary sexual characteristics and functions in males