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neurons in the body?

100 billion


a bundle of neurons OUTSIDE of central nervous system [in the peripheral nervous system]


a bundle of neurons INSIDE of central nervous system

two types of neurons

1. motor- efferent
2. sensory- afferent

nerves can be both efferent/afferent @ the same time


the brain consists of

1. brainstem
2. cerebellum
3. subcortical structures
4. cerebral hemispheres

two hemispheres in brain

1. left- logic
2. right- visual imagery

four lobes of brain

1. front
2. parietal
3. temporal
4. occipital

frontal lobe

help with reason and makes judgments. organizes information and controls some of the motor/muscle functions

parietal lobe

visual attention, sensation [touch and pressure]

occipital lobe

controls vision

temporal lobe

controls hearing and are related to taste and smell

brocas area

in the left frontal lobe and deals with the production of language [expression]

wenickes area

in the left temporal lobe and deals with the processing of words that we hear being spoken [comprehension]

spinal cord

provides the connection between the brain and peripheral nervous system

12 cranial nerves

1.olfactory- sense of smell
2. optic- vision
3. oculomotor- vision, eyelids and pupil dilation
4. trochlear- vision
5. trigeminal- face/mouth
6. abducent- vision
7. facial- face
8. vesibulocochlear- hearing/balance
9. glossopharyngeal- tongue/[pharynx
10. vagus- pharynx/ soft palate
11. accessory- neck and larynx
12. hypoglossal- tongue

cell are composed of

1. cell body- produces proteins needed for the construction of other parts of the neuron.

2. dendrites- carry signals toward the cell body

3. axon- carry signals away from the cell body

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

connects the central nervous system to the limbs and organs

Sensory nerves

gather information of the environment and send it to the brain

motor nerves

tell muscles to contract, therefore making you move.

fast twitch

motor unit/muscle fiber- designed to produce a lot of force/movement very quickly [running/legs]

downside of the fast twitch

they fatigue/get tired very easily

Slow twitch

designed for a more constant use [muscles used for posture/hold our heads up all day]

Mixed group

both of the twitches many muscles are mixed [legs: running slower and faster]

Control circuits/ subcortical structures

basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system

basal ganglia

Controls Cognition
Movement Coordination
Voluntary Movement


mass of grey matter cells that relay sensory signals to and from the spinal cord and the cerebrum


directs a multitude of important functions such as body temperature, hunger, and homeostasis


consists of:
midbrain- vision, hearing, eyemovement, and body movement.
medulla- breathing and heartrate
pons- It is involved in motor control and sensory analysis... for example, information from the ear first enters the brain in the pons


movement, posture, and balance.

white matter

myelinated axons

gray matter

cell bodies

limbic system


5 stages conceptualization

1. conceptualization
2. spatial- temporal planning
3. motor planning
4. performance
5. feedback


an idea/purpose for an action

damages: dementia, confusion, deficits in message content

spatial- temporal planning

planning to express

damages: aphasia

motor planning

physically what muscles/structures does one need to use to get the sound out?

damage: apraxia of speech, dysarthria


going to send the signal out from nerves to muscles causing muscles to move

damage: dysarthria


a response to the action made

damage: dysarthria


can't do motor movements on command [speech/non speech] mistakes are inconsistent
For example: cog,bog,log for the word dog. Mistakes are always a little bit different.


someone who had a stroke with a right or left side paralysis [articulating problems]


provides support and protection for the lungs, heart, and respiratory muscles.

1. sternum
2. ribs- 12 paired sets
3. clavicle
4. vertebral column
5. pelvis


composed of the manubrium which provides attachment for clavicle and first rib

corpus- provides attachment for ribs 2-10

xiphoid process- small extension on the lower part of the sternum. It consists of cartilage in the early years of life and becomes bony in nature in the adult human.

ribs/rib cage

protects the heart
@ rest, ribs are angled down and during inhalation they can elevate to increase lung capacity

three general classes of ribs

true ribs: 1-7 direct attachment to sternum

false ribs: 8-10 connected to sternum through cartilaginous portion

floating ribs- 11-12 articulate only with vertebral column


collar bone- provides a place of connection for accessory muscles of respiration

regions of the spine



neck region of spine = c1-c7


atlas- rotate


axis- turn






connection for legs and vertebral column

the difference between the cervical and thoracic

it becomes thicker and bigger in a going down motion


the most important muscle for respiration [inhailing/exhaling] both! The diaphragm looks like an upside bowl its dome shaped. [at rest]

External intercostals

Assist during inhalation

Internal intercostals

Assist during exhalation


windpipe. a tube that connects the pharynx or larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air


air filled sacs

Boyle's Law.

Given a gas of constant temperature, as volume is increased, pressure will decrease

Inspiration is always an active process


quiet breathing [involuntary]

uses of the diaphragm

speech [more voluntary]

uses of different muscles

active expiration

Use of muscular effort to force air out of the lungs beyond that which is expired in passive expiration

Passive expiration

Relaxing of muscles used for inspiration. Driven by torque, elasticity, and gravit

quiet expiration


Speech inhalation

active [diaphragm and external intercostals]

Inhalation [tidal quiet]


Inhalation [speech]


Exhalation speech



refers to ribs

Tidal volume (TV):

Volume of air exchanged in one cycle of respiration.

Residual Volume (RV):

Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum exhalation.

Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV):

Volume of air that can be inhaled after a tidal inspiration.

Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV):

Volume of air that can be exhaled following passive, tidal expiration.

Vital capacity (VC):

The volume of air that can be inhaled following a maximal exhalation.

Total lung capacity (TLC):

The sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume

Functional Residual Capacity (FRC):

Amount of air in the lungs and airways at the end of a normal quiet exhalation.


is the state of equilibrium in the respiratory system. Occurs when the pressure in the alveoli equals atmospheric pressure.
Happens at the end of a quiet exhalation.
REL is also known as end-expiratory level

relaxation pressure curve

38% of vital capacity represents equilibrium or zero pressure.
Recoil pressures of tissues allow for expiration of ~ 55% VC.
After 55% VC, muscle of expiration are more active.


used to measure air pressure


measures air flow

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