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speech production exam 2

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neurons in the body?
100 billion
nerve
a bundle of neurons OUTSIDE of central nervous system [in the peripheral nervous system]
tract
a bundle of neurons INSIDE of central nervous system
two types of neurons
1. motor- efferent
2. sensory- afferent
nerves can be both efferent/afferent @ the same time
true
the brain consists of
1. brainstem
2. cerebellum
3. subcortical structures
4. cerebral hemispheres
two hemispheres in brain
1. left- logic
2. right- visual imagery
four lobes of brain
1. front
2. parietal
3. temporal
4. occipital
frontal lobe
help with reason and makes judgments. organizes information and controls some of the motor/muscle functions
parietal lobe
visual attention, sensation [touch and pressure]
occipital lobe
controls vision
temporal lobe
controls hearing and are related to taste and smell
brocas area
in the left frontal lobe and deals with the production of language [expression]
wenickes area
in the left temporal lobe and deals with the processing of words that we hear being spoken [comprehension]
spinal cord
provides the connection between the brain and peripheral nervous system
12 cranial nerves
1.olfactory- sense of smell
2. optic- vision
3. oculomotor- vision, eyelids and pupil dilation
4. trochlear- vision
5. trigeminal- face/mouth
6. abducent- vision
7. facial- face
8. vesibulocochlear- hearing/balance
9. glossopharyngeal- tongue/[pharynx
10. vagus- pharynx/ soft palate
11. accessory- neck and larynx
12. hypoglossal- tongue
cell are composed of
1. cell body- produces proteins needed for the construction of other parts of the neuron.

2. dendrites- carry signals toward the cell body

3. axon- carry signals away from the cell body
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
connects the central nervous system to the limbs and organs
Sensory nerves
gather information of the environment and send it to the brain
motor nerves
tell muscles to contract, therefore making you move.
fast twitch
motor unit/muscle fiber- designed to produce a lot of force/movement very quickly [running/legs]
downside of the fast twitch
they fatigue/get tired very easily
Slow twitch
designed for a more constant use [muscles used for posture/hold our heads up all day]
Mixed group
both of the twitches many muscles are mixed [legs: running slower and faster]
Control circuits/ subcortical structures
basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system
basal ganglia
Controls Cognition
Movement Coordination
Voluntary Movement
thalamus
mass of grey matter cells that relay sensory signals to and from the spinal cord and the cerebrum
hypothalamus
directs a multitude of important functions such as body temperature, hunger, and homeostasis
brainstem
consists of:
midbrain- vision, hearing, eyemovement, and body movement.
medulla- breathing and heartrate
pons- It is involved in motor control and sensory analysis... for example, information from the ear first enters the brain in the pons
cerebellum
movement, posture, and balance.
white matter
myelinated axons
gray matter
cell bodies
limbic system
emotion
5 stages conceptualization
1. conceptualization
2. spatial- temporal planning
3. motor planning
4. performance
5. feedback
conceptualization
an idea/purpose for an action

damages: dementia, confusion, deficits in message content
spatial- temporal planning
planning to express

damages: aphasia
motor planning
physically what muscles/structures does one need to use to get the sound out?

damage: apraxia of speech, dysarthria
performance
going to send the signal out from nerves to muscles causing muscles to move

damage: dysarthria
feedback
a response to the action made

damage: dysarthria
Apraxia
can't do motor movements on command [speech/non speech] mistakes are inconsistent
For example: cog,bog,log for the word dog. Mistakes are always a little bit different.
Dysarthria
someone who had a stroke with a right or left side paralysis [articulating problems]
framework
provides support and protection for the lungs, heart, and respiratory muscles.

1. sternum
2. ribs- 12 paired sets
3. clavicle
4. vertebral column
5. pelvis
sternum
composed of the manubrium which provides attachment for clavicle and first rib

corpus- provides attachment for ribs 2-10

xiphoid process- small extension on the lower part of the sternum. It consists of cartilage in the early years of life and becomes bony in nature in the adult human.
ribs/rib cage
protects the heart
@ rest, ribs are angled down and during inhalation they can elevate to increase lung capacity
three general classes of ribs
true ribs: 1-7 direct attachment to sternum

false ribs: 8-10 connected to sternum through cartilaginous portion

floating ribs- 11-12 articulate only with vertebral column
clavicle
collar bone- provides a place of connection for accessory muscles of respiration
regions of the spine
cervical
thoracic
lumbar
cervical
neck region of spine = c1-c7
c1
atlas- rotate
c2
axis- turn
thoracic
t1-t12
lumbar
l1-l5
pelvis-
connection for legs and vertebral column
the difference between the cervical and thoracic
it becomes thicker and bigger in a going down motion
Diaphragm
the most important muscle for respiration [inhailing/exhaling] both! The diaphragm looks like an upside bowl its dome shaped. [at rest]
External intercostals
Assist during inhalation
Internal intercostals
Assist during exhalation
trachea
windpipe. a tube that connects the pharynx or larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air
lungs
air filled sacs
Boyle's Law.
Given a gas of constant temperature, as volume is increased, pressure will decrease
Inspiration is always an active process
true
quiet breathing [involuntary]
uses of the diaphragm
speech [more voluntary]
uses of different muscles
active expiration
Use of muscular effort to force air out of the lungs beyond that which is expired in passive expiration
Passive expiration
Relaxing of muscles used for inspiration. Driven by torque, elasticity, and gravit
quiet expiration
passive
Speech inhalation
active [diaphragm and external intercostals]
Inhalation [tidal quiet]
active
Inhalation [speech]
active
Exhalation speech
active
costal
refers to ribs
Tidal volume (TV):
Volume of air exchanged in one cycle of respiration.
Residual Volume (RV):
Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum exhalation.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV):
Volume of air that can be inhaled after a tidal inspiration.
Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV):
Volume of air that can be exhaled following passive, tidal expiration.
Vital capacity (VC):
The volume of air that can be inhaled following a maximal exhalation.
Total lung capacity (TLC):
The sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC):
Amount of air in the lungs and airways at the end of a normal quiet exhalation.
REL
is the state of equilibrium in the respiratory system. Occurs when the pressure in the alveoli equals atmospheric pressure.
Happens at the end of a quiet exhalation.
REL is also known as end-expiratory level
relaxation pressure curve
38% of vital capacity represents equilibrium or zero pressure.
Recoil pressures of tissues allow for expiration of ~ 55% VC.
After 55% VC, muscle of expiration are more active.
manometer
used to measure air pressure
pneumotachograph
measures air flow