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78 terms

Psychology -- Middle Childhood

STUDY
PLAY
myopia
near sightedness -- the vision problem most common
otitis media
middle ear infection -- becomes slightly less common but is still an issue
obesity
body weight of 20% greater than what is normal for the individual's age, sex, and physical build -- rates have risen significantly in children and adults since the mid 70's due to use of high fructose corn syrup and high fat foods
asthma
the most common illness
flexibility
more pliable and elastic than preschoolers; differences noticeable when swinging a bat, kicking a ball, jumping, etc.
balance
increased stability improves athletic skills such as running, hopping, skipping, throwing, kicking, etc.
agility
quicker and more accurate movements are possible and facilitate dancing, dodging, soccer footwork, etc.
force
children can throw and kick harder and faster, jump further and higher
writing
becomes more clear and is expanding, but still uses whole arm as opposed to the wrist
drawing
more detail and depth cues, 3D images become apparent
physical education
children are not getting enough -- need at least 30 minutes of moderate to intense activity and an hour of walking
rough and tumble play
friendly chasing and play-fighting
dominance hierarchy
a stable ordering of group members that predicts wo will win when conflict arises
concrete operational
Piaget's stage for children aged 7-11 that is characterized by increased logical thougt and organization
operations
mental actions that obey logical rules
decentration
focusing on several aspects of a problem and relating them, rather that just centering on one -- can see the dynamic transference that occurs when transferring liquids, etc.
reversibility
capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentall reverse direction, returning to the starting point
classification
ability to think in terms of categories is improving as our knowledge of the world is expanding
seriation
ability to order things along a quantitative dimension (Ex: fewest to largest, shortest to tallest, etc.)
transitive inference
ability to seriate mentally (Ex: Bob is older than Susan, and Susan is older than John, Is Bob older than John?"
spatial reasoning
gaining a more accurate understanding of space -- able to think in 3D terms, navigate directions, read maps, rotate figure in our minds, etc.
cognitive maps
children's mental representations of familiar, large-scale spaces, such as the neighborhood or school
selective
attention becomes more _________ as children are able to focus on the information that is relative to their goals
adaptable
attention becomes more _______ as children will focus on what they have to learn, instead of what they already know
planful
attention becomes more _____ as children focus on what is most important to do in order to accomplish their goals
rehearsal
repeating the information to ones's self; common memory strategy in early grade school
organization
grouping related items together; common memory strategy in early grade school and improves as our knowledge base expands
elaboration
creting a relationship or shared meaning between two or more pieces of information that are not members of the same category -- memory strategy where we can remember lists by making a story that is personally meaningful
whole language approach
reading should be taught in a way that parallels natural language learning -- from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language -- expose them to letters, poetry, stories, songs, etc. to teach that language has a function and value
basic skills approach
children are given simplified reading material and coached with phonics
phonics
the basic fundamental rules for translating written symbols into sounds
drills
mathematical principle focused on the the repitition of numeric skills
number sense
mathemtical principle focued on problem solving and understanding the concepts of numbers
grammar
technical rules of language -- ability to use tenses and the passive voice is evident
pragmatics
the communicative and social side of language -- ability to adjust to people and situations, and phrase requests to get what we want is evident
vocabulary
increases four-fold during school yeras, learning up to 20 new words a day
bilingual
type of development where children learn two languages at the same time and are able to do so fluently -- offers cognitive advantages including greater cognitive flexibility
immersion
type of language program where english speaking children are taught entirely in French for several years
semi-lingual
occurs where the skills in both language are not fluenty developed -- common in minority children who lose their first language as it is not fully developed and have trouble fully learning the new language
mainstreaming
student with learning difficulties are placed in the regular classrooms for part of the school day to prepare them to participate in society and encourage optimal development with same-aged peers
full-inclusion
placement of children with learning disabilities in the regular classroom on a fulltime basis
mental retardation
people wit IQ's between 55 and 70 who show problems in adaptive behavior, or skills of everyday living
learning disability
people who have great difficulty with one or more aspects of learning, often reading -- as a result, their achievement is often considerably behind what would be expected for their IQ
gifted
displaying exceptional intellectual strengths; tend to have an IQ of over 130
talent
outstanding performance in a specific field
creativity
ability to produce work that is original, yet appropriate -- something others may not have thought of but that is useful in some way
divergent thinking
the generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem (creativity)
convergent thinking
involves arriving at a single correct answer -- this thought process is emphasized on IQ tests
industry vs inferiority
Erikson's crisis for middle childhood that is resolved when children develop competence at useful skills and tasks
industry
developing a sense of competence at useful skills -- school should provide many opportunities for this to develop
inferiority
pessimism and lack of confidence in one's own ability todo things well -- family and school can contribute to negative feelings if they dispay negative responses to child's work and behavior
self-concept
judgments of their appearance, abilities, and behaviors, in relation to those of others -- kid's will ask: "Do I measure up?" -- also called the "me-self"
ideal-self and real-self
children may begin to see discrepancies between what others expect of you (the ______-self) and who they really are (the _____-self) -- high overlap results in high self-esteem while low overlap results in low self-esteem and feelings of depression and sadness
self-esteem
how children feel about themselves is linked to different domains including school performance, athletic activities, physical appearance, and social status -- it is hierarchically structured, meaning that children place the areas they value most at the top -- tends to drop in the first few years of school and then rise as children find who they are in relation to their social circle
attributions
our common, everyday explanations for the causes of our behavior; whether we attribute our successes and failures to internal or external factors
mastery oriented
type of attribution where we credit succes to ability and failure is due to controllable factors (putting in more effort) -- linked to higher self-esteem
learned helplessness
type of attribution in which failure is due to abilit, and success is due to luck or other external factors -- individual sees ability as fixed and cannot be changed through effort
self-conscious emotions
children no longer need adults to help us feel pride and guilt because parental standards have been introjected more fully -- we know when we should feel pride or guilt
emotional self-regulation
children learn to manage negative emotions that threaten their self-esteem and in order to keep peer approval
emotional self-efficacy
knowledge that we can control our own emotions increases
emotional understanding
understanding that emotions can be connectedto internal stages and that we can experience more than one emotion at once
peer groups
groups that form similar values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers -- usually formed by people in the same grade, class, or neighborhood, based on proximity and similarity
peer culture
the developmnt and adoption of a specialized vocablarly, dress code, hang-out place and appropriate behaviors that continues throughout life
perspective taking
capacity to imagine what other people may be thinkng and feeling
distributive justice
beliefs about how to divide material goods fairly
strict equality
everyone gets the exact same amount (5-6 years)
merit
rewards should go to someone who has worked hard or performed in an exceptional way (6-7 years)
equity and benevolence
special consideration should be given to those at a disadvantage and adapt "fairness" to the situation (8 years)
peer acceptance
refers to likeability -- the extent to which a child is vieed by a group of agemates, as a worthy social partner
popular
child has many positive votes
rejected
child is actively disliked
controversial
child receives many votes, both positive and negative
neglected
child is seldom chosen at all
popular-prosocial
child displays a combination of academic and social competencies, good in school and cooperative with others
popular-antisocial
include "tough kids" who are athletic but may be poor academically or who may cause trouble and defy authority
rejected-aggressive
child who has high rates of conflict, physicaland relational aggression, is hypeactive, inattentive and has impulisive behaviors
rejected-withdrawn
child is characterized by social anxiety, and have negative expectations about how peers will treat them -- targets for bullies
coregulation
transitional form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while permitting children to be in charge of moment-to-moment decision making