body weight of 20% greater than what is normal for the individual's age, sex, and physical build -- rates have risen significantly in children and adults since the mid 70's due to use of high fructose corn syrup and high fat foods
more pliable and elastic than preschoolers; differences noticeable when swinging a bat, kicking a ball, jumping, etc.
increased stability improves athletic skills such as running, hopping, skipping, throwing, kicking, etc.
quicker and more accurate movements are possible and facilitate dancing, dodging, soccer footwork, etc.
children are not getting enough -- need at least 30 minutes of moderate to intense activity and an hour of walking
a stable ordering of group members that predicts wo will win when conflict arises
Piaget's stage for children aged 7-11 that is characterized by increased logical thougt and organization
focusing on several aspects of a problem and relating them, rather that just centering on one -- can see the dynamic transference that occurs when transferring liquids, etc.
capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentall reverse direction, returning to the starting point
ability to think in terms of categories is improving as our knowledge of the world is expanding
ability to order things along a quantitative dimension (Ex: fewest to largest, shortest to tallest, etc.)
ability to seriate mentally (Ex: Bob is older than Susan, and Susan is older than John, Is Bob older than John?"
gaining a more accurate understanding of space -- able to think in 3D terms, navigate directions, read maps, rotate figure in our minds, etc.
children's mental representations of familiar, large-scale spaces, such as the neighborhood or school
attention becomes more _________ as children are able to focus on the information that is relative to their goals
attention becomes more _______ as children will focus on what they have to learn, instead of what they already know
attention becomes more _____ as children focus on what is most important to do in order to accomplish their goals
grouping related items together; common memory strategy in early grade school and improves as our knowledge base expands
creting a relationship or shared meaning between two or more pieces of information that are not members of the same category -- memory strategy where we can remember lists by making a story that is personally meaningful
whole language approach
reading should be taught in a way that parallels natural language learning -- from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language -- expose them to letters, poetry, stories, songs, etc. to teach that language has a function and value
mathemtical principle focued on problem solving and understanding the concepts of numbers
the communicative and social side of language -- ability to adjust to people and situations, and phrase requests to get what we want is evident
type of development where children learn two languages at the same time and are able to do so fluently -- offers cognitive advantages including greater cognitive flexibility
type of language program where english speaking children are taught entirely in French for several years
occurs where the skills in both language are not fluenty developed -- common in minority children who lose their first language as it is not fully developed and have trouble fully learning the new language
student with learning difficulties are placed in the regular classrooms for part of the school day to prepare them to participate in society and encourage optimal development with same-aged peers
placement of children with learning disabilities in the regular classroom on a fulltime basis
people wit IQ's between 55 and 70 who show problems in adaptive behavior, or skills of everyday living
people who have great difficulty with one or more aspects of learning, often reading -- as a result, their achievement is often considerably behind what would be expected for their IQ
ability to produce work that is original, yet appropriate -- something others may not have thought of but that is useful in some way
the generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem (creativity)
involves arriving at a single correct answer -- this thought process is emphasized on IQ tests
industry vs inferiority
Erikson's crisis for middle childhood that is resolved when children develop competence at useful skills and tasks
developing a sense of competence at useful skills -- school should provide many opportunities for this to develop
pessimism and lack of confidence in one's own ability todo things well -- family and school can contribute to negative feelings if they dispay negative responses to child's work and behavior
judgments of their appearance, abilities, and behaviors, in relation to those of others -- kid's will ask: "Do I measure up?" -- also called the "me-self"
ideal-self and real-self
children may begin to see discrepancies between what others expect of you (the ______-self) and who they really are (the _____-self) -- high overlap results in high self-esteem while low overlap results in low self-esteem and feelings of depression and sadness
how children feel about themselves is linked to different domains including school performance, athletic activities, physical appearance, and social status -- it is hierarchically structured, meaning that children place the areas they value most at the top -- tends to drop in the first few years of school and then rise as children find who they are in relation to their social circle
our common, everyday explanations for the causes of our behavior; whether we attribute our successes and failures to internal or external factors
type of attribution where we credit succes to ability and failure is due to controllable factors (putting in more effort) -- linked to higher self-esteem
type of attribution in which failure is due to abilit, and success is due to luck or other external factors -- individual sees ability as fixed and cannot be changed through effort
children no longer need adults to help us feel pride and guilt because parental standards have been introjected more fully -- we know when we should feel pride or guilt
children learn to manage negative emotions that threaten their self-esteem and in order to keep peer approval
understanding that emotions can be connectedto internal stages and that we can experience more than one emotion at once
groups that form similar values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers -- usually formed by people in the same grade, class, or neighborhood, based on proximity and similarity
the developmnt and adoption of a specialized vocablarly, dress code, hang-out place and appropriate behaviors that continues throughout life
rewards should go to someone who has worked hard or performed in an exceptional way (6-7 years)
equity and benevolence
special consideration should be given to those at a disadvantage and adapt "fairness" to the situation (8 years)
refers to likeability -- the extent to which a child is vieed by a group of agemates, as a worthy social partner
child displays a combination of academic and social competencies, good in school and cooperative with others
include "tough kids" who are athletic but may be poor academically or who may cause trouble and defy authority
child who has high rates of conflict, physicaland relational aggression, is hypeactive, inattentive and has impulisive behaviors
child is characterized by social anxiety, and have negative expectations about how peers will treat them -- targets for bullies