Landmark case study

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arbiter
a person with the power to decide a dispute
Brown v. Board of Education
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that "separate but equal" segregation was not equal in public education
Bush v. Gore
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that states cannot violate the Equal Protection Clause under the Fourteenth Amendment when undertaking election recounts.
District of Columbia v. Heller
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to possess a firearm
Equal Protection Clause
the section of the Fourteenth Amendment that says that states must apply the law equally and cannot discriminate against citizens or groups of citizens
executive privilege
the belief that the conversations between the president and his aides are confidential
Gideon v. Wainwright
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld the Sixth Amendment right that all defendants must be appointed a lawyer if they cannot afford their own attorney
In re Gault
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that juvenile court must comply with the Fourteenth Amendment
judicial opinion
judgment by a court
Juvenile rights
rights of people under age 18
judicial review
the power of the U.S. courts to examine the laws or actions of the legislative and executive branches of the government and to determine whether such actions are consistent with the U.S. Constitution
landmark
an important or unique decision, event, fact, or discovery
legal equality
the concept that everyone is equal in the eyes of the law
legal precedent
a judicial decision that is used as an example in dealing with later, similar cases
Marbury v. Madison
U.S. Supreme Court case that established judicial review
Miranda v. Arizona
U.S. Supreme Court cases that upheld the Fifth Amendment protection from self-incrimination
Plessy v. Ferguson
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined that "separate but equal" segregation was not discrimination
Supremacy Clause
the clause that states that the U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land, and that national laws are supreme over state laws, found in Article VI
Tinker v. Des Moines
U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld a student's First Amendment right to engage in symbolic speech in school
prosecute
to carry on a legal action against an accused person to prove his or her guilt
rights of the accused
the rights included in the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Amendments: protection from unreasonable search and seizure, double jeopardy, and self-incrimination, the right to due process, right to a speedy and public trial, trial by jury, the right to be informed of criminal charges, right to be confronted by adverse witnesses, right to an attorney, protection from self-incrimination
segregation
the separation of people, such as segregation based on race
self- incrimination
the right in the Fifth Amendment that protects a person from being forced to reveal to the police, prosecutor, judge, or jury any information that might subject him or her to criminal prosecution
separation of powers
the structure of the federal government, according to the U.S. Constitution, that sets up three branches with their own distinct powers and responsibilities
unanimous
In complete agreement
United States v. Nixon
U.S. Supreme Court case that limited executive privilege