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wavelengths ordered from short to long

gamma rays, x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radio waves

seven visible forms of radiation from long to short

red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet

kinetic energy

energy of motion
KE=1/2 * mv^2

potential energy

stored energy
m=mass of object (kg)
g=standard gravity constant (m/s2)
h=height where object is located (m)

Law of Conservation of Energy

energy is not lost but rather transferred back and forth between KE and PE
-given a fixed amount of total energy, an increase in KE will result in a decrease in PE and vice versa
-total will stay same

atomic number

number of protons


protons + neutrons

atomic mass

average mass of all the known isotopes of an element


equals number of protons if neutral atom

periodic trends

see chem notes

globular proteins

proteins that are water soluble

calculate pH


litmus paper changes

red - acidic
blue - basic

what does a difference of one unit on the pH scale below represent

a concentration difference of 10

saturated hydrocarbons

all single bonds

unsaturated hydrocarbons

have one or more double or triple bonds


unsaturated with one double bond


unsaturated with triple bonds


saturated hydrocarbon

how to figure out molecular formula of hydrocarbons

alkane and alkene : C(n)H(2n)
alkyne: C(n)H(2n-2)


elements that may accept or donate electrons readily and posses a mixture of metallic and nonmetallic properties





oxidation reaction

electron donation to produce more positive ion

reduction reaction

electron acceptance to produce a more negative ion

oxidation-reduction reactions

combustion, photosynthesis, and metabolism

combustion reaction

adding oxygen to reactants to product water and carbon dioxide

neutralization reaction

acid + base = water and salt

polar molecule

molecule that possesses both positive and negative atomic structure

ice is ___ dense then liquid water; therefore it ___

less, floats

Kelvin to Celsius


water and specific heat

has the second highest specific heat, water undergoes minor temperature changes compared to the environment


creation of larger molecules


creation of smaller molecules


liquid to gas


gas to liquid

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