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45 terms

Islam Vocabulary

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Abbasid
The dynasty that came after the Umayyads
Abu Bakr
first caliph after death of muhammad
Ali
Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of the caliphs; focus for the development of Shi'ism.
Al-jabor
established by Al-gorism: Algebra
Allah
The Arabic word for God
Avicenna
also known as Ibn Sina, wrote a medical encyclopedia
Baghdad
Abbasid Capital
Caliph
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
Crusades
A series of holy wars from undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
Dome of the Rock
Muslim shrine containing the rock from which. Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock
Fatwa
religious commandment Muslims must follow
Gabriel
the angle who was the messenger of God
Hadith
A tradition relating the words or deeds of the Prophet Muhammad; next to the Quran, the most important basis for Islamic law.
Hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca
Hegira
Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina
Hijab
a headscarf worn by Muslim women
Ibn Rushd
Helped reintroduce Europe to Greek works of Philosophy
Imam
Muslim prayer leader
Islam
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Followers are called Muslims.
Jerusalem
sacred city of Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
Jihad
struggle in the way of god
Ka'aba
a stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
Khadija
Muhammad's wife
Minaret
tower used to call Muslims to prayer
Mecca
birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
Medina
the second holiest city; where Muhammad lived after fleeing Mecca
Mosque
Muslim house of worship
Muhammad
Founder of Islam, considered the greatest prophet in Islam
Muslim
a believer or follower of Islam
Qur'an
the holy book of islam
Ramadan
ninth month of the Muslim calendar marked by fasting
Salat
the second pillar of Islam is prayer 5x a day
Sawm
the third pillar of Islam is fasting (primarily during the month of Ramadan)
Shahada
1st pillar of Islam Declaration of faith
Shari'a
Islamic Law
Sheikh
the leader of an Arab village or family
Shi'ite
A member of the branch of Islam that supports the descendants of Muhammad as his rightful successors
Sunni
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
Sura
one of the sections (or chapters) in the Koran
Twelver
One of three branches of Shiism. Belief in twelve divinely ordained leaders. 85% of Shi'a are Twelvers.
Umayyad
the first dynasty of Arab caliphs whose capital was Damascus
Umma
Muslim community
Zakat
the fourth pillar of Islam is charity
Omar Kayyam
Famous Muslim scholar and astronomer
Muezzin
person who calls Muslims for religious services