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Muscarinic Agonists

mimic the effects of ACH at muscarinic receptors

Muscarinic Antagonists (parasympatholytics; antimuscarinics; anticholinergics)

Block the effects of ACh at muscarinic receptors

Ganglionic Stimulating Agents

(such as nicotine itself) mimic the effects of ACh at nicotinic n receptors of autonomic ganglia

Ganglionic Blocking Agents

Block ganglionic nicotinic N receptors

Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

Block the effects of ACh at niconitic M receptors

Cholinesterase Inhibitors

Prevent the breakdown of ACh by acetylchinesterase and thereby increase the activation of all cholinergic receptors

Anticholinergic Drug

Blocks muscarinic receptors (such as Atropine)

Activation of Dopamine Receptors

1) Dilation of renal blood vessels, leading to increased renal perfusion

Activation of Beta 1 Receptors

1) Increased HR, contraction, and AV conduction velocity
2) Renin release from the kidney

Activation of Beta 2 Receptors

1) Bronchiol dilation
2) Relaxation of uterine smooth muscle
3) Vasodilation
4) Glycogenolysis leading to increased glucose levels in the blood stream
5) Increased skeletal muscle contraction

Activation of Alpha 2 Receptors

Inhibits the release of transmitter (located in presynaptic nerve terminals)

Activation of Alpha 1 Receptors

1) Eye- causes mydriasis
2) Vessels - causes vasoconstriction
3) Male Sex Organs - causes ejaculation
4) Prostate capsule - causes contraction
5) Bladder - causes contraction of trigone and sphincter

Activation of Muscarinic Receptors

Elicits a response from an organ
1) Increased glandular secretions
2) Contraction of smooth muscle in the GI and bronchi
3) Decreases HR
4) Contraction of the iris
5) contraction of the ciliary muscle of the eye (focusing)
6) Dilation of blood vessels
7) Voiding of the bladder

Activation of Nicotinic M Receptors

Causes contraction of skeletal muscle

Activation of Nicotinic N Receptors

1) Promotes ganglionic transmission of SNS and PSNS nerve impulses
2) Promotes the release of E and NE from the adrenal medulla

6 Categories of Cholinergic Drugs

1) Muscarinic Agonists
2) Muscarinic Antagonists
3) Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
4) Ganglionic Stimulating Agents
5) Ganglionic BLocking Agents
6) Cholinesterase Inhibitors


Mimic effects of acetylcholine on muscarinic receptors

Functions of the parasympathetic nervous system

i. Slows heart rate
ii. Increases gastric secretions
iii. Urination
iv. Defecation, increases GI tone and motility
v. Focuses eye for near vision; constricts pupil
vi. Contracts bronchial smooth muscle

Function of the sympathetic nervous system

1) regulation of temperature
2) regulation of the cardiovascular system
3) implementation of the "fight or flight" response

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