Pharm Exam 2 General Terms

Muscarinic Agonists
mimic the effects of ACH at muscarinic receptors
Muscarinic Antagonists (parasympatholytics; antimuscarinics; anticholinergics)
Block the effects of ACh at muscarinic receptors
Ganglionic Stimulating Agents
(such as nicotine itself) mimic the effects of ACh at nicotinic n receptors of autonomic ganglia
Ganglionic Blocking Agents
Block ganglionic nicotinic N receptors
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
Block the effects of ACh at niconitic M receptors
Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Prevent the breakdown of ACh by acetylchinesterase and thereby increase the activation of all cholinergic receptors
Anticholinergic Drug
Blocks muscarinic receptors (such as Atropine)
Activation of Dopamine Receptors
1) Dilation of renal blood vessels, leading to increased renal perfusion
Activation of Beta 1 Receptors
1) Increased HR, contraction, and AV conduction velocity
2) Renin release from the kidney
Activation of Beta 2 Receptors
1) Bronchiol dilation
2) Relaxation of uterine smooth muscle
3) Vasodilation
4) Glycogenolysis leading to increased glucose levels in the blood stream
5) Increased skeletal muscle contraction
Activation of Alpha 2 Receptors
Inhibits the release of transmitter (located in presynaptic nerve terminals)
Activation of Alpha 1 Receptors
1) Eye- causes mydriasis
2) Vessels - causes vasoconstriction
3) Male Sex Organs - causes ejaculation
4) Prostate capsule - causes contraction
5) Bladder - causes contraction of trigone and sphincter
Activation of Muscarinic Receptors
Elicits a response from an organ
1) Increased glandular secretions
2) Contraction of smooth muscle in the GI and bronchi
3) Decreases HR
4) Contraction of the iris
5) contraction of the ciliary muscle of the eye (focusing)
6) Dilation of blood vessels
7) Voiding of the bladder
Activation of Nicotinic M Receptors
Causes contraction of skeletal muscle
Activation of Nicotinic N Receptors
1) Promotes ganglionic transmission of SNS and PSNS nerve impulses
2) Promotes the release of E and NE from the adrenal medulla
6 Categories of Cholinergic Drugs
1) Muscarinic Agonists
2) Muscarinic Antagonists
3) Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
4) Ganglionic Stimulating Agents
5) Ganglionic BLocking Agents
6) Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Mimic effects of acetylcholine on muscarinic receptors
Functions of the parasympathetic nervous system
i. Slows heart rate
ii. Increases gastric secretions
iii. Urination
iv. Defecation, increases GI tone and motility
v. Focuses eye for near vision; constricts pupil
vi. Contracts bronchial smooth muscle
Function of the sympathetic nervous system
1) regulation of temperature
2) regulation of the cardiovascular system
3) implementation of the "fight or flight" response