molecule capable of releasing a H+ ; solution having an H+ concentration greater than that of pure water (pH less than 7)
concentration of free, unbound hydrogen ion in a solution; the higher the H+ concentration, the greater the acidity
one of the four bases making up DNA; also a breakdown product of ATP used as a neurotransmitter
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
nucleotide that transfers energy from metabolism to cell functions during its breakdown to ADP and release of Pi
molecule containing amino group, carboxyl group, and side chain attached to a carbon atom; molecular subunit of protein
amino acid side chain
the variable portions of amino acids; may contain acidic or basic charged regions, or may be hydrophobic
a molecule containing polar or ionized groups at one end and nonpolar groups at the other...
value that indicates an atom's mass relative to mass of other types of atoms based on assignment of a value of 12 to carbon atom...
beta pleated sheet
a form of secondary protein structure determined by the relative hydrophobicity of amino acid side chains
substance composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen according to general formula Cn(H2O)n
chemical bond between two atoms in which each atom shares one of its electrons with the other...
type of chemical reaction in which two smaller molecules, such as amino acids, are joined to form a larger molecule; a single molecule of water is lost in the process...
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
nucleic acid that stores and transmits genetic information; consists of double strand of nucleotide subunits that contain deoxyribose...
carbon chain with carboxyl group at one end through which chain can be linked to glycerol to form triglyceride...
...atom that has an unpaired electron in its outermost orbital; molecule containing such an atom
highly branched polysaccharide composed of glucose subunits; major carbohydrate storage form in body...
weak chemical bond between two molecules or parts of the same molecule in which negative region of one polarized substance is electrostatically attracted to a positively charged region of polarized hydrogen atom in the other
breaking of chemical bond with addition of elements of water (-H and -OH) to the products formed; aka hydrolytic reaction
atom or small molecule containing unequal number of electrons and protons and therefore carrying a net positive or negative electrical charge
large organic molecule composed of up to thousands of atoms, such as a protein or polysaccharide
carbohydrate consisting of one sugar molecule, which generally contains five or six carbon atoms
monounsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid, such as oleic acid, in which one carbon-carbon double bond is formed within the hydrocarbon chain due to the removal of two hydrogen atoms
a protein in which two or more proteins are associated via hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic attractions, and other forces, to yield a single, larger protein
any molecule with characteristics that favor solubility in oil and decreased solubility in water
nucleotide polymer in which phosphate of one nucleotide is linked to the sugar of the adjacent one; stores and transmits genetic information; includes DNA and RNA
polar covalent chemical bond joining the amino and carboxyl groups of two amino acids; forms protein backbone
lipid subclass similar to triglyceride except that a phosphate group (--PO4 ^2-) and small nitrogen-containing molecule are attached to third hydroxyl group of glycerol; major component of cell membranes
polar covalent bond
covalent chemical bond in which two electrosn are shared unequally between two atoms of different electronegativites
pertaining to molecule or region of molecule containing polar covalent bonds or ionized groups
large polymer consisting of one or more sequences of amino acid subunits joined by peptide bonds to form a functional molecule with multiple levels of structure
formed when two or more proteins associate with each other by hydrogen bonds and other forces
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
single-stranded nucleic acid involved in transcription of genetic information and translation of that information into protein structure; contains the sugar ribose
lipid subclass; molecule consists of four interconnected carbon rings to which polar groups may be attached
acid that inonized completely to form hydrogen ions corresponding anions when dissolved in water
the 3D folded structure of a protein formed by hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic attractions, electrostatic interactions and cysteine cross-bridges
trans fatty acid
an unsatturated fatty acid in which the H atoms around a carbon:carbon double bond are distributed in a trans orientation (on the same side); implicated in a variety of negative health consequences
van der Waals forces
weak forces between atoms and molecule due to transient electrical forces generated by the orbits of electrons in the outer energy shells of atoms
acid whose molecule do not completely ionize to form hydrogen ions when dissolved in wwater
a mutation in the gene for the beta subunits of hemoglobin result. in the replacement of a single glutamic acid residue with one of valine. glutatmic acid has a charged, polar side grou, whereas valine ahs a nonpolar side group. the nonpolar groups causes many hemoglobin molecule to bond with each other.