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skin nails hair


liver failure , bilirubin builds up toxic creating yellow pigment


the subcutaneous tissue just deep to the skin made up of mostly adipose tissue

stores fat, anchors the skin, and acts as a shock absorber

What is the function of the hypodermis?


the outer layer of the skin made up of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium


epidermal cell that produces keratin


the fibrous protein that makes skin waterproof and keeps it strong, also found in hair and nails


epidermal cell that produces the brown piment melanin

Langerhans' cell

epidermal cell that acts as a macrophage to activate our immune system to destroy foreign substances

stratum basale

deepest epidermal layer made of a single row of cells that undergo rapid cell division

Merkel cell

epidermal cell functions as touch receptors in association with sensory nerve endings

epidermis, dermis, hypodermis

What are the three regions of the skin?

stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale

List the 5 layers of the epidermis in order from the superficial to deepest layer.

stratum lucidum

Which layer of the epidermis is found only in thick skin?

stratum basale

Which layer of the epidermis consists of a single row of cells where rapid cell division occurs?

stratum spinosum

Which layer of the epidermis is made up of a weblike system of intermediate filaments with flattened keratinocytes that appear "spiny"

stratum granulosum

Which layer of the epidermis consists of three to five cell layers with keratinocytes that accumulate granules that form keratin and lipids that provide waterproofing

papillary and reticular

What are the two layers of the dermis?

dermal papillae

What are the peglike projections on the superior surface of the dermis that indent the overlying epidermis?

Pacinian corpuscle

cell deep in the dermis that is
capable of detecting pressure

Meissner's corpuscles

sensitive touch receptors in the dermis


pigment that ranges in color from yellow to reddish-brown to black that is produced when the skin is exposed to sunlight


yellow to orange pigment that is most obvious in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet


pink-red pigment


A condition that occurs when hemoglobin is poorly oxygenated causing the skin to appear blue

sudoriferous gland

produces sweat

eccrine (merocrine) sweat gland

produces true sweat; abundant on the palms of hand, soles of the feet, and forehead

apocrine sweat glands

produce true sweat plus fatty substances and proteins; found in the axillary (armpit) and anogenital areas of the body

ceruminous glands

modified apocrine glands found in the lining of the external ear canal; produce sticky, bitter substance called cerumen (earwax)

mammary glands

specialized sweat glands that secrete milk

sebaceous glands

oil glands


What stimulates sebum production?


an active inflammation of the sebaceous glands accompanied by pimples on the skin

Hair on scalp protects from physical trauma, heat loss, sunburn; eyelashes shield eyes; nose hairs filter particles in the air

What is the function of hair?

shaft and root

What are the chief regions of the hair?

hair shaft

The portion of the hair that projects beyond the skin

hair root

is the part of, the part of the hair contained within the follicle, below the surface of the skin

vellus and terminal

What are the two types of hair?

vellus hair

fine hair found on children and adult female soft hair around lips and on face

terminal hair

coarse, long hair found on the head, eyebrows, axillary and genital areas: growth stimulated by male sex hormones


hair thinning and balding


scalelike modification of the epidermis that forms a clear protective covering on the dorsal surface of a finger or toe

Regulates body temperature; Produces Vitamin D; Protection from chemical and physical injury: Blood reservoir; Excretion of nitrogenous wastes

What are the functions of the skin?

basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma

What are the three types of skin cancer?

basal cell carcinoma

the least malignant and most common type of skin cancer


the most dangerous skin cancer

Erthema is

red marrow blood (histamine)


tissue damage inflicted by intense heat, electricity, radiation, or certain chemicals, which denature proteins and cause cell death

first degree burn

involves only epithelium; redness, heat (i.e. sunburn)

second degree burn

destroys the epidermis and part of the dermis; characterized by pain, blisters, swelling, and discoloration.

third degree burn

destroys epidermis and dermis, appear leathery and dark, no pain, insensitivity to pain due to nerve damage; fluid loss & increased risk of infection due to damage of protective barrier

rule of nines

method used to calculate the amount of fluid lost as the result of a burn; divides the body into 11 areas, each accounting for 9% of the total body area

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