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104 terms

chapter 7 words

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alveol/o
alveolus (air sac)
bronch/o
bronchus (airway)
bronchi/o
bronchus (airway)
bronchiol/o
bronchiole (little airway)
capn/o
carbon dioxide
carb/o
carbon dioxide
laryng/o
larynx (voice box)
lob/o
lobe (a portion)
nas/o
nose
rhin/o
nose
or/o
mouth
ox/o
oxygen
palat/o
palate
pharyng/o
pharynx (throat)
phren/o
diaphragm (also mind)
pleur/o
pleura (lining of lungs)
pneum/o
Air, lung
pneumon/o
air, lung
pulmon/o
lung
sinus/o
sinus (cavity)
spir/o
breathing
thorac/o
chest
pector/o
chest
steth/o
chest
tonsill/o
tonsil
trache/o
trachea (windpipe)
uvul/o
uvula
-pnea
breathing
nose
structure that warms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respitory tract; also houses the olfactory receptors for the sense of smell
sinuses
air-filled spaces in the skill that open into the nasal cavity
palate
roof of the mouth; partition between the oral and nasal cavities; divided into the hard and soft palate
pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
trachea
windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina, where it splits into the right and left bronchi
bronchial tree
branched airways that lead from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs called alveoli
lungs
two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration
lobes
subdivisions of the lung, two on the left and three on the right
diaphragm
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by moving up and down
mucous membranes
thin sheets of tissue that line the respiratory passages and secrete mucus, a viscid (sticky) fluid
eupnea
normal breathing
bradypnea
slow breathing
tachypnea
fast breathing
hypopnea
shallow breathing
hyperpnea
deep breathing
dyspnea
Difficulty breathing
apnea
inability to breathe
orthopnea
ability to breathe only in an upright position
cyanosis
bluish coloration of the skin caused by a deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
epistaxis
nosebleed (epi = upon; stazo = to drip)
expectoration
coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
sputum
material expelled from the lungs by coughing
hyperventilation
excessive movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypocapnia
hypoventilation
deficient movement of air into and out of the lungs, causing hypercapnia
hypoxemia
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia
deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
rhinorrhea
thin, watery discharge from the nose (runny nose)
asthma
panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane, characterized by paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough
atelectasis
collapse of lung tissue (alveoli) (atele = imperfect; -ectasis = expansion or dilation)
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenic carcinoma
lung cancer; cancer originating in the bronchi
bronchospasm
constriction of bronchi caused by spasm (involuntary contraction) of the peribronchial smooth muscle
emphysema
obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air, with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange (emphysan = to inflate)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx
pharyngitis
inflammation of the pharynx
pyothorax
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
hemothorax
blood in the pleural cavity
pneumonia
inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals
pneumothorax
air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
pneumohemothorax
air and blood in the pleural cavity
pulmonary embolism
occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
sinusitis
inflammation of the sinuses
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
tonsilitis
acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils
upper respiratory infection
infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
endoscopy
examination inside a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnostic or treatment purposes`
bronchoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope, to examine the airways
nasopharyngoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx to diagnose structural abnormalities such as obstructions, growths, and cancers
examination methods
techniques used during physical examination to objectively evaluate the respiratory system
auscultation
to listen; physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope, such as auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds
percussion
physical examination method of tapping over the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity such as the chest
lung biopsy
removal of a small piece of lung tissue for pathological examination
radiology
x-ray imaging
chest x-ray
x-ray imaging of the chest to visualize the lungs; directional terms identify the path of the x-ray beam to produce the radiograph:
PA (posterior-anterior) = from back to front
AP (anterior-posterior) = from front to back
lateral = toward the side (left lateral)
computed tomography
CT of the thorax is used to detect lesions in the lung; CT of the head is used to visualize the structures of the nose and sinuses
pulmonary angiography
x-ray imaging of the blood vessels of the lungs after the injection of contrast material
lobectomy
removal of a lobe of a lung
pneumonectomy
removal of an entire lung
thoracentesis
puncture for aspiration of the chest (pleural cavity)
thoracoplasty
repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
thoracostomy
creation of an opening in the chest usually for insertion of a tube
thoracotomy
incision into the chest
tonsillectomy
excision of the palatine tonsils
tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
excision of the tonsils and adenoids
tracheostomy
creation of an opening in the trachea, most often to insert a tube
tracheotomy
incision into the trachea
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
method of artificial respiration and chest compressions to move oxygenated blood to vital organs when breathing and the heart have stopped
endotracheal intubation
passage of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures to the lungs
antibiotic
a drug that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
anticoagulant
a drugs that dissolves, or prevents the formation of, thrombi or emboli in the blood vessels
antihistamine
drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine
histamine
a compound in the body that is released by injured cells during allergic reactions, inflammation, and so on, causing constriction of bronchial smooth muscle and dilation of blood vessels
bronchodilator
drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi
expectorant
drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing