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GEOL 105- Quizes
Terms in this set (39)
Pre-existing rocks that change due to increased pressure and/or temperature are known as __________ rocks.
The type of stress at a transform boundary is _______ stress.
According to your text, a ______ of an event is the product of the of the probability of that event occurring times the consequences.
What are the three compositional layers of the Earth?
rocky crust, rocky mantle and metallic core
In recent decades the number of ___________ has been increasing due to increasing global population.
The _______________ is a "soft" plastic layer of the mantle below the plates that can flow in the solid state.
If a plate with oceanic crust converges at a plate with a plate that also has oceanic crust, a __________ ___________ can result.
T/F: The energy for plate tectonic processes, including earthquakes and volcanism, comes from the Sun.
False, PT is driven by internal and not external (solar) energy.
The plates are made of
lithosphere (crust and upper mantle)
What are two differences between continental and oceanic crust?
continental crust is less dense and thicker than oceanic crust
The two most common elements in the earth's crust are:
silicon and oxygen
According to your text, a ______________ is when the time, date and size of an event is specified, while a _______________ is a range of certainty or probability of an event.
The Himalayas are the result of a ________________.
continental or continent-continent collision zone
The ______________ _______________ relation or concept says that the larger the magnitude (size or energy) of an event, the less often it will occur.
Which type of fault is most associated with convergent plate boundaries? (Involves compressional stress and seen at subduction zones and continental-continental collisions.)
The location at the earth's surface directly above the initial rupture point of an earthquake is called the __________.
What is the correct relationship between faults and earthquakes?
Movement along faults causes earthquakes
According to your text, "Great" earthquakes (M9and above) are most likely to occur at
Which of the following large historical earthquakes did not occur at an active plate boundary?
New Madrid, MO 1811-1812
The effects of shaking on buildings and felt/observed by people form the basis of a measurement known as _________.
Surface waves may have the largest amplitude (and greatest energy) of all seismic waves, yet they may not be detected on the other side of the earth. Why?
As their name implies, surface waves travel only on the surface and not through the earth.
The 2010 Haiti Quake was M7.0, while the 2011 Tohuko, Japan Quake was M9.1, yet the Haitian quake was much deadlier. Why?
The epicenter of the Haitian quake was close to a densely populated city with poorly constructed concrete buildings.
Why must calculations for magnitude correct for distance from the quake to the seismograph?
Magnitude measures the amount of energy released by the quake at the focus, but seismic waves lose energy as they travel and thus you must correct for this lost energy.
Can earthquakes be predicted, days or weeks in advance?
No, it is considered too difficult right now, as precursors that would warn of a quake vary too much and do not always occur.
Quakes that occur on a fault before a larger quake may be _________.
Deformed rock (strain) along a fault stores _____________________ energy
Most earthquake damage is due to:
What hazard can result when seismic waves travel through sandy, saturated soils?
What was the largest scientifically measured earthquake?
The 1960 Chile EQ at M9.5
People were caught unawares by the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake tsunami due to the lack of a _________ system in the Indian Ocean.
Which is more likely to form a tsunami, a thrust fault or a strike-slip fault (answer with the name of the fault, either "thrust" or "strike-slip")?
T/F: tsunami are just like other ocean waves, they just occur during calm weather and are bigger than storm waves.
False, tsunami have nothing to do with weather and have much longer periods than wind waves, resulting in surges that flow onshore for many minutes.
Most tsunami generated by earthquakes arise from megathrust quakes in:
The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center was established after a deadly tsunami struck _________ without warning in 1946.
Megatsunami with runups up to 500 meters can be generated by ____________ in confined bodies of water.
The three main mechanisms of melting in the Earth are:
pressure-release melting, flux melting and secondary melting
The three types of magma composition are:
mafic, intermediate and felsic
A tsunami that struck Japan in 1700 has traced to a M9 earthquake in the_________ subduction zone in the Pacific Northwest of the US and Canada
According to the Figure 4.7 in your text, Delaware's coast would be considered at a ______ risk of experiencing a tsunami.
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