170 terms

End of Pathway Assessment-NOCTI

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Terms in this set (...)

CAD
computer aided drafting
plot plan
diagram showing everything at the project site at a set scale
floor plan
diagram showing arrangement of rooms and furniture at a set scale
elevation plan
diagram showing the external face of a building showing height at a set scale
foundation plan
diagram showing the plane view of a structure at a set scale
specification sheets
a document describing the specifications a product or property
Brainstorm
A group technique for solving problems, generating ideas, stimulating creative thinking, etc. by unrestrained spontaneous participation in discussion.
Client
A person using the services of a professional person or organization.
Creativity
The ability to make or bring a new concept or idea into existence; marked by the ability or power to create.
Criteria
A means of judging. A standard, rule, or test by which something can be judged.
Constraint
1. A limit to a design process. Constraints may be such things as appearance, funding, space, materials, and human capabilities. 2. A limitation or restriction.
Design
1. An iterative decision-making process that produces plans by which resources are converted into products or systems that meet human needs and wants or solve problems. 2. A plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of something before it is built or made. 3. A decorative pattern.
Design Brief
A written plan that identifies a problem to be solved, its criteria, and its constraints. Encourage thinking of all aspects of a problem before attempting a solution.
Design Process
A systematic problem-solving strategy, with criteria and constraints, used to develop many possible solutions to solve a problem or satisfy human needs and wants and to winnow (narrow) down the possible solutions to one final choice.
Design Statement
A part of a design brief that challenges the designer, describes what a design solution should do without describing how to solve the problem, and identifies the degree to which the solution must be executed.
Designer
A person who designs any of a variety of things. This usually implies the task of creating drawings or in some ways uses visual cues to organize his or her work.
Engineer
A person who is trained in and uses technological and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.
Engineering Notebook
A book in which an engineer will formally document, in chronological order, all of his/her work that is associated with a specific design project.
Innovation
An improvement of an existing technological product, system, or method of doing something.
Invention
A new product, system, or process that has never existed before, created by study and experimentation.
Iterative
A process that repeats a series of steps over and over until the desired outcome is obtained.
Valid
Well-founded on evidence and corresponds accurately to the real world.
open-looped
a system that has to have input each time the system is used
feedback
fourth step of a system
closed-looped
a system that has feedback
process
second step of a system
output
third step of a system
subsystem
smaller systems intergrated into a larger system
What are some important resources for engineering and technology?
People,Energy, Capital(Money), Information,Tools, Machines, Materials, and Time
What is a system?
a set or group of parts that all work together, all of them include input, a process and an output
What is a subsystem
a system that operates as part of another system
What does constraint mean?
a limit, such as appearance, budget, space, materials, or human capital in the design process.
ISO
International Standards Organization
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
Drawing to scale
when objects are drawn at a reduced or enlarged size
Multiview drawing
another term for orthographic projection
Third-angle projection
the system in which the top view of a drawing is placed above the front view
CAD (Computer Aided Design)
The use of a computer to assist in the process of designing a part, circuit, building, etc.
Fabricate
Construct or manufacture an industrial product.
Mockup
A model devised to expose its parts for study, training or testing.
Model
A visual, mathematical, or three-dimensional representation in detail of an object or design, often smaller than the original. A model is often used to test ideas, make changes to a design, and to learn more about what would happen to a similar, real object.
Engineering
The profession which the knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied with judgement to develop ways to use, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.
Systems Model
input -> process -> output -> feedback
7 resources of input
time, energy, tools, materials, people, capital, information
input
information, ideas, and activities that we need to provide to determine what you want to accomplish
process
The conversion of ideas or activities through the use of machines, resources and labor into useful products
output
What the system produces.
feedback
the part of a system that measures and controls the outcome of a system
types of outputs
expected, unexpected, desirable, undesirable
EDP: Step 1
Define the problem
EDP: Step 2
Brainstorm, research
EDP: Step 3
Brainstorm-develop solutions
EDP: Step 4
Choose the best solution
EDP: Step 5
Create a prototype
EDP: Step 6
Evaluate the solution
EDP: Step 7
Communicate the design
EDP: Step 8
Refine the Design
Who is an Engineer?
a person who designs products, structures, or systems to improve people's lives
What is Engineering?
it is the process of designing solutions
Who is an Engineer Technologist?
these people work out the production details and design the system for manufacturing a product
model
an object, usually built to scale, that communicates information and represents a larger object
design brief
a written plan that identifies the problem to be solved, its criteria, and its constriants. It is used to encourage thinking about all aspects of the problem before attempting a solution
engineer
a person who is trained in and use technological and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems
evolution
a gradual development
Environmental Engineering
Solve environmental problems related to pollution, water use, materials and energy use, waste treatment, etc.
Electronic Engineering
Design, develop, and test small electronic systems, such as appliances, telephones, surgical devices, etc.
Electrical Engineering
Design, develop, and test the manufacture of electrical equipment and large-scale electrical systems.
Computer Hardware Engineering
Research, design, develop, and test computer systems and computer-related equipment.
Civil Engineering
Plan the design, construction, and maintenance of various civil structures.
Chemical Engineering
Address issues related to chemical production, transformation of raw materials, and chemical use.
Biomedical Engineering
Devise procedures and devices to improve medical conditions.
Agricultural Engineering
Create technology to advance food, biological, irrigation, and machinery systems.
Aerospace Engineering
Design, develop, and test aircraft and spacecraft ranging from rockets and spacecraft to gliders and small passenger aircraft.
What is a constraint?
A constraint is what holds parts together according to certain boundaries.
mock-up
a rough model made of cardboard or other materials
prototype
a model made of the actual materials that can be used
TECHNOLOGY
processes and knowledge that can be used to extend human abilities as well as satisfy human needs and wants.
TEAM
a group of people working together to accomplish a common goal.
Design
A plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of something before it is built or made or a decorative pattern.
Design Brief
A written plan that identifies a problem to be solved, its criteria, and its constraints.
Design Process
A systematic problem-solving strategy, with criteria and constraints, used to develop many possible solutions to solve a problem or satisfy human needs and wants and to narrow down the possible solutions to one final choice.
Engineering Notebook
A book in which an engineer will formally document, in chronological order, all of his/her work that is associated with a specific design project.
Innovation
An improvement of an existing technological product, system, or method of doing something.
Invention
A new product, system, or process that has never existed before, created by study and experimentation.
Product
A tangible artifact produced by means of either human or mechanical work, or by biological or chemical process.
Research
The systematic study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
Assess
To thoroughly and methodically analyze accomplishment against specific goals and criteria.
Creativity
The ability to make or bring a new concept or idea into existence; marked by the ability or power to create.
Criteria
A standard, rule, or test by which something can be judged.
Problem Identification
The recognition of an unwelcome or harmful matter needing to be dealt with.
Prototype
A full-scale working model used to test a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments.
Assess
To thoroughly and methodically analyze accomplishment against specific goals and criteria
Creativity
The ability to make or bring a new concept or idea into existence; marked by the ability or power to create
Criteria
A means of judging. A standard, rule, or test by which something can be judged
Constraint
1. A limit to a design process. Constraints may be such things as appearance, funding, space, materials, and human capabilities. 2. A limitation or restriction
ABET
Accreditation Board for Engineering & Technology
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
ISO
International Standards Organization - International Organization for Standardization
EIA
Electronic Industries Alliance
IEEE
Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
AWS
American Welding Society
FEA
Finite Element Analysis, Stress analysis
OSHA
Occupational Safety & Health Administration
SPC
Statistical Process Control (Control Charts)
CNC
Computer Numerical Control
TLO
Tool Length Offset
CAM
Computer Aided Manufacturing
CIM
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
GDT
Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (feature-based i.e. flatness)
FMS
Flexible Manufacturing System
JIT
Just In Time
UNC
Unified National Coarse (threads)
UNF
Unified National Fine (threads)
SES
Society of Engineering Science
SAE
Society of Automotive Engineers
SME
Society of Manufacturing Engineers
SWE
Society of Women Engineers
ASEE
American Society of Electrical Engineers
watts
amps x volts
AWJ
Abrasive Water Jet. Cuts profile parts in any material usually with an abrasive such as garnet. Actually it erodes parts from sheet stock at cut lines.
Wire EDM
cuts using a wire with high voltage. Used for making gears and detailed cuts.
EDM
Electrified cathode and anode (mold and blank stock) in a bath. Voltage erodes the stock to shape of mold.
cast or casting
made from a mold
form
presses material to a desired shape
injection molding
for mass production of plastic parts, heated plastic injected into mold, then ejects finished parts
vacuum molding
used for clamshell packaging. Heated plastic vacuumed to a form.
What are the major engineering fields?
Civil
Mechanical
Electrical
Aerospace
Structural
What major functions do engineers perform?
1. Research- making new discoveries and finding uses
2. Development- production of a function able device/ process
3. Design- optimizing/ making easier to produce/ improving performance
4. Production/Testing- mass production + quantity control
5. Construction- Production on a site
6. Operations- managing facilities and networks
7. Sales- consumer creator link, creating a market
8. Management- using background for managing
9. Consulting- solving problems
What type of education is required to be an engineer?
1. Bachelors degree at a credited school (ABET or CAEB)
2. Exams- Fundamentals of Engineering test- Engineering in Training (EIT)
3. Practice for 4 years- principles and practice exam- licensed engineer
What important ethics are related to engineering situations?
Engineers use knowledge and skill for the advancement of human welfare. They need to be honest and impartial, increasing reputation of the engineering profession.
Who do engineering interact with? (Other technical personnels on the job)
Engineers
Scientists
Technologists
Technicians
Craftsmen
What important milestones have occurred during the progression of the engineering field?
Henry Fords assembly line
Wright brothers first flight
Thomas Edison's light bulb
Robert Goddars' liquid fuel rockets
What are the important principles of the problem solving process?
identification of a need, problem definition, researching, constraint, criteria, alternative solutions, analysis
What are the steps in the design process?
Identify the need, research and gathering info, develop solution (alternative solutions), choose a solution (analysis), construct a prototype, test and evaluate
How to analyze solution/ identifying strengths and weaknesses?
Efficiency
Cost
Safety
Functionality
Availability of materials
Durability
How to develop details of a solution?
Scale model
Inventor (dynamic simulation)
Orthographic Isometric drawing
Techno CNC + 3D printing
How to develop, test, and redesign prototypes?
Test for safety and durability
Test for efficiency
How to explain components of set up, machining, casting, molding, welding, and finishing?
Turning- lathe
Milling- makes square objects
Casting- turns liquid into mold
Welding- arc, spot, gas (oxyacetylene)
Undercutting- welding reduce cross sectional strength
Finishing- painting
How to identify and use common hand tools
Straight edge- ruler
VIC (vernier caliper)- measures inside/outside distanxes
How to identify and properly use fasteners?
Machine srews- hex nuts
Wood screws- course thread/pointy
Sheet metal- pointed heads, sharp fine threads
Thread Rotation= UNC 1/4(diameter)-20(thread per inch)-2(thread length)-2A(type of thread)
How to estimate and measure the size of objects using SI and US units?
1 inch = 2.54 cm
100 ft = 28.3 L
1 gal water = 7-8 lbs
How to explain the role and quality control in manufacturing?
-Controls the quality
-bSigma- stands for manufacturing for standardization
-International organizations
-Manufacturing tolerance
How to measure with percussion to olds and instruments?
7.00 sleeve(0.5)
0.25 thimble
What role does quality control plays in assembly and fabrication?
-Improves quality and reputation
-Reducing execution time
-Lower costs
What are the roles of supplying and outsourcing?
-Reordering levels are set
-No over stocking
(to attain materials in time w/o overstocking)
What does the order and methodology of the assembly process consist of?
Operations
Storage
Transportation/Delays
Inspection
What are the attributes of common materials?
Ferrous- high weight/ lower conductivity/ easily corrodible/ magnetic
Non Ferrous- malleable/ high conductivity
How to make an oral presentation?
Practice
Don't read from slides
Speak to the audience
How to interpret aspects and/or types of engineering drawings and plans?
Orthographic drawings
Dimensions/ line drawings
How to express data in tables, graphs, and charts?
Bar graph- qualitative
Histogram- Quantitative
How to contribute to a team project?
Communication
Common goal, vision
Find a good team
How to follow appropriate personal safety procedures?
Need to know and learn safety rules
What role of OSHA is in the technical workplace?
Occupational safety + help admin
Ensure safety standards are followed through
How to use appropriate safety equipment?
Eye and ear protection
Safety shoes
Masks
Hazardous material storage
How electrical safety decries function?
Circuit breaker-
to switch circuit off, surge protector, when it gets excess/ it converse excess to ground
How to solve problems using vectoring to persist forces?
X Y components
Hypotenuse components
How to calculate and describe the effect of resistance?
V=IR^2
W=VI
How to apply Ohms law, Watts law, and Kirchoffs law?
Ohms law- V=IR^2
Watt- power= voltage x current
Kirchoffs- sum of voltage in = sum of voltage out
How does AC and DC systems work and differ?
DC current- flows in the same direction
AC current- constantly flows
How to identify what causes resistance in a fluid system?
Smoother pige inside
As few curves as possible motor cylinder piston
How hydraulic and pneumatic systems work?
Pump, Valce, Motor/Cylinder
Hydraulic motor- generates power
Pneumatic- pressurized fluId
Three ways heat is transferred
Convection- hot to cold (no direct contact)
Radiation- to contact (vacuum)
Conduction
How to convert between Celsius and Ferenheit?
(X9/5)+32 <from C to F>
(-32X5)/9 <from F to C>
How heat conductors and insulators work?
Head conductors relies on density (more particles) heat can jump
How to solve thermal problems using appropriate units?
BTU- British thermal unit
1 pound of water needed to get 1 degrees F
What are the six simple machines?
Pulley
Lever
Wheel and Axel
Wedge
Screw
Plane
How to solve problems using appropriate units in engineering systems?
Increase velocity of liquid
Increase force or increase area absolute p + gauge = atmospheric pressure
How to identify the uses and types if inductors and capacitors?
Capacitor- stores electrical energy
Inductors- stores energy (w/ magnetic field)
How to use insulation to minimize heat flow?
1. sealed windows (vacuum)
2. Fiberglass
How to identify electrical components and their functions?
Diode limits- keeps current in 1 direction
Translator- amplifies or switches on electrical signal

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