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19 terms

Ethics Study Guide

STUDY
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philosophy
The love of wisdom; the study of the big question about being , beauty, knowledge and right and wrong as well as the foundational principles of other disiplines
metaphysics
branch of philosophy that studies being
epistemology
branch of philosophy that studies knowledge
ethics
branch of philosophy that studies morality ex beliefs about right and wrong
aesthetics
branch of philosophy that studies beauty
metaethics
branch of ethics that explains meaning and logical structure of moral beliefs;explains what ethics is and whether or not we can do ethics
descriptive ethics
branch of ethics that describes people's ethicl behavior, language, and experiences without making normative judgements about it. a part of phychology or sociology rather than philosophy;not studies in PHI220
normative ethics
branch of ethics that studies the theories that explain the difference betwen right and wrong
applied ethics
branch of ethics that applies normative theories to specific issues such as abortion, euthanasia, punishment, war etc.
philosophies of
smaller branches of philosophy that provide foundational principles of other disiplines, eg; the philosophy of music, law, or math
normative claim
a statement that makes a value judgement
descriptive claim
a statement that descirbes a fact, but makes no value judgement about it
extrinsic value
value that an object possesses only because of it's relationships to other things;eg having a tooth drilled is valuable because it leads to better health
intrinsic value
value of an object possesses in itself, without reference to other objects; eg.happiness is valued in itself, not because we think it will lead to other things
preeminence of reason
an assumption that ethicists make; it says that although people use a variety of tools to approach the world reason is to be privleged over other tools
universal perspective
an assuption that ethicists make; it says that ethicists are looking for universally applicable principles, not just principles that work in individual situations
principle of impartiality
an assumption that ethicists make; it says that everyone must be considered equal
dominance of moral norms
an assumption that ethicists make; it says that moral norms supersede other norms
socratic method
a way of doing philosophy credited to the greek philosopher Socrates;involves dialogue en elenchus; the goal is to make your opponent see that he does not know as much as he thinks he knows;once you both recognize your ignorance, you can proceed together to find the answers