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to formally withdraw from a union

54th Regiment

one of the first African American Regiment organized in the North

Emancipation Proclamation

Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free


People who settle in a country they weren't born in.

War Hawks

members of Congress who wanted to fight Great Britain


a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy


the act of making or becoming a single unit

12th Amendment

Required presidential electors to vote separately for president and vice president

Fugitive Slave Law

law that said you had to return runaway slaves to their owners tension btwn N & S~north opposed slavery and they refused to enforce the law, especially abolitionists

Middle Passage

a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies

Poll Tax

a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote


Ku Klux Klan--Against Blacks, Jews, Catholics. Used terror to control them

Mass Production

Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply


Northerner who traveled south to make money off of the Reconstruction

Cash Crop

Farm crop raised to be sold for money

Gettysburg Address

a 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg


the action of an armed force that surrounds a fortified place and isolates it while continuing to attack

Confederate States of America

the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861


internal revenue service; the agency that collects federal income taxes

Literacy Test

A test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote


Movement to end slavery

Market Revolution

economic changes where people buy and sell goods rather than make them themselves

Grandfather Clause

A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.

Trail of Tears

The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.

Jim Crow Laws

Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights

Civil War Draft

1863-The North was having trouble getting people to volunteer for the army. So they passed a law to create a lottery to pick men and force them to fight. Rich people could pay to avoid the draft.

13th Amendment

abolished slavery

14th Amendment

Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

15th Amendment

citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude

Plessy V. Ferguson

supreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal

Freedman's Bureau

provided: food, clothing, jobs, medical care, schools for former slaves and the poor whites


A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.


garden consisting of a small cultivated wood without undergrowth

Popular Sovereignty

people hold the final authority in all matters of government


People who went to California looking for Gold (They left in 1849)


the mission in San Antonio where in 1836 Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico

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