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Terms in this set (71)
Digestive Tract Layers
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
Muscular folds covered internally by mucosa and externally by stratified squamous epithelium
Important, with the cheeks, for speech and mastication
Muscular organ which is attached inferiorly by the frenulum
A solid mass of skeletal muscle that moves food around in the mouth and aids in swallowing, speach and taste
32 in an normal adult
Types; incisors, canines, premolars, molars
Consists of a crown, neck and a root
Center is a pulp cavity, surrounded by dentin and is covered by hard enamel
Function is to break up food.
produce saliva contain enzymes which aid in digestion
Collapsible muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach (pierces the diaphragm)
Serves as the passageway for food from the pharynx to the stomach and is lined with thick lubricating mucous
Upper and lower sphincters regulate the movement of food in and out.
Upper sphincter helps prevent air from entering during respiration
Lower sphincter prevents gastric reflux
Forms H & B
Serves as a food reservoir; food is stored until it can be partially digested and moved.
Secretes gastric juice; aids in the digestion of food
Upmost part that connects to the stomach
Is connected to the duodenum and is about 2.5 m long. It starts at the point where the tube turns abruptly forward and downwards
Carries on from the jejunum with no sharp line defining the two. It is approx 3.5 m long and connects to the large colon (E)
Increases SI surface area
The wall of the small intestine (SI) is covered in folds of mucosa, these are covered in villi, which are covered in epithelium. This aids absorption of food
About 1 mm in height and contain an arteriole, venule and lymph vessel (there are about 1700 per cell)
Capillaries that are important for fat transport in the SI
The submucosa in the SI contain many of these glands
Small Intestine Function
It is the biggest place of absorption in the body
(A)Pear-Shaped sac that can hold between 30-50 ml of bile, and is about 7 - 10 cm long.
Lies under the surface of the liver
Stores bile that enters from the hepatic and cystic ducts (M & L)
Common bile duct
Transports bile from left and right hepatic ducts
Clusters of acini are connected by small ducts which join to form larger ducts, and they join to form (E)
a grayish pink coloured gland about 12-15 cm long, weighing 60 g.
Complex organ composed of endocrine and exocrine tissues (most common exocrine)
Exocrine portion has acini cells which produce digestive enzymes
Between the exocrine units of the pancreas are pancreatic islets that produce... (function)
Detoxifies various substances
Steps in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates
Stores iron and vitamins A, B12 and D
Produces plasma proteins and serves as a site of haematopoiesis
Left and Right Hepatic ducts
J & K
Located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen, tucked up against the inferior surface of the diaphragm
Left and Right Lobes
B & A
Caudate and Quadrate Lobes
Two lobes down the back/centre of the liver
Hepatic Portal Vein
Enter the liver at a region on its inferior surface called the porta
Lymphatic vessels and two hepatic ducts exit at the ______
drain blood from the liver
Transport bile out of the liver and unite to form the common hepatic duct.
Divided into the caecum, colon and rectom
Swallowing has three phases:
Voluntary phase - bolus is pushed by the tongue backwards
Pharyngeal phase - reflex initiated by the stimulation of receptors in the oropharynx
Oesophageal phase - movement of food down the oesophagus by peristaltic waves via oesophageal muscles which contact behind the bolus.
Breaks food down to smaller easily digestied peices
1 - 1.5 l is secreted every day
Contains salivary amylase (digestive enzyme) which breaks down starch to form maltose and isomaltose
Secretions regulated by the automatic nervous system, mainly the parasympathetic system.
Increase in response to chewing, tastes, odors, thoughts of food.
Large Intestine Functions
Chyme is converted to faeces
Absorption of water and salts
secretion of mucus and action by micro organisms forms faeces
About every 8-12 hours, strong peristaltic contractions occur causing mass movements which push content towards the anus
Some bacteria produce UTK which is reabsorbed
Produces secretions of mucus, electrolytes and water to protect and lubricate intestinal walls
Hormones released stimulate hepatic and pancreatic secretions
LI Epithelial Cells
The cells in walls have enzymes bound to them that play a significant role in the final steps of digestion
Continues protein digestion
Controlled by taste and smell sensations, chewing, swalling and the thought of food. Impulsed from medulla initiate secretion after these stimuli
Distention of the stomach sends messages back to the medulla which stimulates secretion.
Regulates entry of chyme into the small intestines, presence of chyme with pH of 3 or greater stimulates secretions. Less than a pH of 2 it inhibits secretions.
Mixing waves - relatively weak
Peristaltic waves - strong and force some chyme into the duodenum
Decreases acid secretion
Neutralizes gastric acids
Increases stool volume, speeds up passage of faeces through intestines and facilitates evacuation
Decrease nausa and vomiting
to treat diarrhea due to infection or inflammation
used in orthopaedics to treat muscle spasm
Can contain steroids and local anaesthetic.
Protects epithelial cells within the SI
binds with Vit B12 to make it more easily absorbed in the ileum
A hormone that helps regulate secretions in the SI
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