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What lives in the oral cavity?
many microenvironments, 300+ species of bacteria(some aerobic and anaerobic), beneficial bacteria, and opportunisitc bacteria
What are viral infections of the oral cavity?
cold sores, fever blisters, superficial vesicles on an erythematous base
Why do the viral infections of the oral cavity reactivate?
stress, physiological change, fever, trauma
How do bacterial oral cavity infections occur?
biofilm formation, tarter(calculus), dental plaque, anaerobic bacteria
How do dental caries occur?
start when enamel(external surface) is dissolved by organic acids produce by dental plaque. then enzymatic destruction of matrix, cavitation, and bacterial invasion
What is the cause of dental caries?
streptococcus mutans which ferment glucose and produce lactic acid
What is periodontitis?
inflammation of tissues that support the teeth including the gingiva and supporting bones
What is periodontal diseases the result of?
dextran formation from sugars by streptococci, acid production by lactobacilli, depostition of calculus by actinomyces spp, secretion of endtoxins by bacteriodum spp
What is dysentery?
frequent watery stools accompanied by abdominal pain, fever, and dehydration. stool specimans may have mucous or blood
What are the symptoms of viral gastroenteritis?
nasuea, diarrhea, vomitting, abdominal pain, myalgia, headache malaise, low-grade fever
Is viral gastroenteritis self-limiting?
most are,(24-48 hours), infatalities in infants, young chidren, rotavirus is main cause of most children, rapid antigen detection
How is gastroenteritis transmitted in the hospital setting?
contact with contaminated fomites, airborne transmission
Type C viral hepatitis?
usually through blood transfusion, progresses but are symptomless until about 20 years later
What is HBV immune globin?
It can be given to people who are unvaccinated who have been exposed to HBV
What is the diagnosis for bacterial gastritis and ulcer?
NH4 excretion test, urea breath test, culture of duodenal biopsy
What is campylobacter jejuni?
spiral-, gull-winged-shaped, gram-negative rod, microaerophillic, capnophillic,
What are the symptoms of campylobacter enteritis?
diarrhea, vommiting, nausea, fever, malaise, abdominal pain
What is the diagnosis for campylobacter enteritis?
culture on a selective agar; micraerophillic atmosphere increased CO2 at 42 degrees celcius
What is the cause of salmonellosis?
salmonella spp. which is gram-neg bacilli, invade intestinal cells, produce toxins
What are the symptoms of salmonellosis?
sudden onset headache, abdominal pain, nausea, sometimes vomitting
What are symptoms of typhoid fever?
fever, sever headache, malaise, anorexia, rash on trunk, nonproductive cough, constipation
What are complications of typhoid fever?
meningitis, endocarditis, gall bladder, liver, bone infection, pneumonia, bacteremia
What causes cholora?
vibrio cholorae serogroup 01 which are curved, gram-neg bacillus, halophillic, and in marine envir.
If cholora is untreated, what happens?
circulatory collapse, renal failure, death may occur, 50% mortality
How is cholora transmitted?
fecal-fecal, contact with feces, vomitus of infected, contaminated water and food
What are symptoms of enterotoxigenic e. coli?
profuse, water diarrhea, mucous or blood, vomitting, abdominal cramping, dehydration, low-grade fever
What are the symptoms for enterohemorrhagic e. coli?
hemorrhagic, watery diarrhea, abdominal cramping, mild or no fever
How is enterhemorrhagic e. coli transmitted?
fecal-oral, contaminated undercooked beef, food and drinks
What is the diagnosis for enterhemorrhagic e. coli?
culture of e. coli O157:H7 using selective/differential media, or enzyme immunoassay for shiga toxin
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