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A New China: Intermediate Reader of Modern China Grammer Lesson 29


以上means "over" a certain level or number.
when used as a predicate the verb 在is often used before it
1) 根据法律, 二十一岁以上的人才能喝酒。
2) 这个补习班的人数在两百个以上。

when来is precedded by a time expression, it means "during....," and can be replaced by 以来. But when 以来is preceded by an event, it means "since (the happening of that event up to now)" and cannot be replaced by 来. (see L18)
1) 这几年来,中美之间的差异减少了不少。
2) 中国过去二十年来,人民生活的改变可以说是从"温饱"渐渐变到"小康"的过程。


所谓, meaning "what is called," is used to introduce a term which is then explained in the following phrase or clause. 所谓 means "so-called" when it is used to quote someone else and usually implies disagreement.
1) 离婚泽加,单亲家庭增多,这就是你所谓的"进步"?
2)所谓"发福", 其实并不是"越来越有福气",而是越拉越胖。

由can be equivalent to 从 indicating a starting point in time or space or the starting point of a change. It mainly takes a noun or adfective as ites object.
2)由相互冲突到相互尊重, 这是一个很可喜的现象。

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