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Combo with "Patho Final" and 1 other
Terms in this set (82)
(Korotkoff sound begins) pressure exerted by blood when ejected from the left ventricle
pressure that occurs when the ventricles are relaxed (korotkoff sound disappears)
difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure
Definition: condition of increased pressure or force in the arterial wall
Major Risk Factor for:
· Coronary artery disease (CAD)
· Renal failure
· Peripheral vascular disease
Essential hypertension: unknown etiology; most common type;
CV Risk factors
Outcomes: renal damage; Left Vent. Hypertrophy; MI
Known, identifiable cause
Infants/peds most often have secondary hypertension
Sleep apnea, drugs, CRD, Primary Aldosteronism, Cushings or steroid therapy, pheochromocytoma, thyroid or parathyroidism
That which is caused by crisis: can cause CVA, emboli, MI, HF, etc. - DBP >120 and acute end-organ damage
Mean Arterial Pressure - (2 X DBP + SBP)/3 : useful for titrating IV vasoactive drugs
(mechanism of breathing)
relationship between pressure and flow. The resistance increases as the airway passages narrow.
Smooth muscle constriction
(Mechanism of Breathing)
Lungs ability to inflate and chest wall expandability.
-Neonates and children have increased lung compliance up to 3.5 years old due to chest wall flexibility
-Elderly have decrease in lung compliance due to rib rigidity and loss in elastic fibers in the lungs
Opposing Lung Forces
(Mechanism of Breathing)
Chest wall expandability (note: not usually measured)
Acute Respiratory Failure
Define: a state of disturbed gas exchange resulting in abnormal arterial blood gases.
Etiology: neuromuscular alterations (e.g., quadraplegia, hemiplegia); chest trauma; emphysema; ARDS.
Manifestations: hypoxia, hypercapnia, confusion, decreased LOC, restlessness, dizzy, hypotension, tachycardia
Diagnosis: clinical picture; ABGs; chest X-Ray
Management: mechanical ventilator; treat the cause; medications; supportive care
Can cause Croup: Infection of larynx, trachea, and large bronchi.
Bronchiolitis: widespread inflammation of the bronchioles.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a virus that causes infections of the lungs and respiratory tract. It's common that most children have been infected with the virus by age 2. Respiratory syncytial (virus can also infect adults.
In adults and older, healthy children, the symptoms of respiratory syncytial virus are mild and typically mimic the common cold. Self-care measures are usually all that's needed to relieve any discomfort.
Infection with respiratory syncytial virus can be severe in some cases, especially in premature babies and infants with underlying health conditions. RSV can also become serious in older adults, adults with heart and lung diseases, or anyone with a very weak immune system (immunocompromised).
General info: an autosomal recessive disorder of the exocrine glands. Note: with current RX and treatment measures, patients live long into adulthood.
Etiology: the most common genetic disease in the U.S. (1:2000-3000).
Patho: autosomal recessive disorder.
Obstruction from increasing pressure around the outside of the airway lumen
Etiology: smoking, air pollution, certain occupations (e.g., welders, mining)
Patho: alveolar destruction with inflammation of lung tissue and release of proteolytic enzymes; inactivates alpha1 antitrypsin (normally protects lung parenchyma)
General info: also labeled Type A COPD ("Pink Puffer"); frequently combined with chronic bronchitis.
Type B "Blue Bloater"
changes in the airway with chronic inflammation, swelling of bronchial mucosa, hyperplasia of mucous glands, increased bronchial walls. Note: results in obstruction to airflow.
Diffuse interstitial lung disease
Define: conditions of the lung that cause a thickening of the alveolar interstitium
Patho: there are immune responses that cause injury to the alveolar cells. These conditions lead to large air-filled sacs accompanied with dilated bronchioles. Note: this is an inflammatory response that ultimately destroys the alveoli.
Normal reticulocyte count
Those types of anemia with an actual decrease in the numbers of red cells. Note: can be caused by a decreased production of red cells or an increased destruction of red cells.
Normal total red cell count with a disturbance in regulation of plasma volume. (Pregnant woman, Athletes, Post flight astronauts)
abnormal enlargement of the right side of the heart as a result of disease of the lungs or the pulmonary blood vessels.
Sudden Cardiac Death Syndrome
Unexpected death within 1 hr of Sx from cardiac
(ventricular fibrillation most common) Only small number preceded by MI
Associated CAD most often
Diffuse myocardial atrophy
Myocardial scarring & fibrosis
MI (Myocardial Infarction)
prolonged unstable angina or total disruption of blood flow to myocardium
necrosis of myocardial cells
Ventricular septal defect
Acyanotic Congenital Defect (type of congenital heart disease)
Initially L to R shunt/Shunt can reverse over time cyanosis
Left Sided Heart Failure
(Primarily Pulmonary Symtoms)
Dyspnea on exersion
(Frontward symptoms same for both)
Right Sided Heart Failure
(Primarily Fluid Buildup)
Production of RBC's
inflammation of the wall of a vein with associated thrombosis, often occurring in the legs during pregnancy.
Varicose Veins (Superficial veins)
Dilated, torturous veins, usually in legs
Patho: valve problems in veins; can't move blood from extremities
Causes: obesity; congenital; venous obstruction; standing
s/s: mild to severe pain; legs cramps; swelling
TX: surgery; cosmetics; antiembolic stockings; elevate legs often; prevention
Cause: acute thrombus /embolism, trauma, external compression
Deep Vein Thrombosis
thrombosis (clotting) in a vein lying deep below the skin, especially in the legs. It is a particular hazard of long-haul flying.
Symptoms: swelling in affected limb, warmth, pain or tenderness, redness, pallor, changes in skin color
Fourth leading cause of pediatric cancer. Most are unilateral and are large, well encapsulated tumors that grow rapidly. Note: 80% are diagnosed before age of 5 with palpable abdominal mass. Other manifestations are: abdominal pain, HTN, and hematuria.
Management: nephrectomy, then radiation and chemotherapy. Note: used to be lethal, but now has 85% cure rate.
Polycystic Kidney Disease
-Enlarges kidneys (palpation of kidney palpatable)
-Leads to kidney failure and HTN by age 15
-Late stages requires dialysis or transplantation
-600,000 in U.S.
-4th leading cause of kidney failure
Recessive: occurs in infants/children and often results with end stage renal disease by the age of 15.
Dominant: the most common and occurs in adulthood (40-50 years of age).
Note: pain most common Sx.
Other Sx: hematuria, calculi, UTI.
Management: supportive; dialysis; transplant
a disorder where some fetal development has occurred. 40-60% of pediatric end stage renal failure due to this condition. Note: this condition may be fatal.
failure of one or both kidneys in embryonic development. Note: occurs in 1:5000 fetuses and results in stillbirth when evidenced. (rare)
Beta blockers: HTN
Decreases heart rate and contractility
ACE inhibitors: HTN
Inhibit formation of angiotensin II
Angiotensin II receptor blocker: HTN
Blocks effects of angiotensin II
Aldosterone Receptor Blocker: HTN
affects RAAS pathway
Ca++ Channel Blocker: HTN
Blocks heart and vessel contraction
Alpha1 blockers: HTN
Decreases heart rate and vessel contractility
Causes dilation f the vessels
Intrapulmonary causes of restrictive lung disorders
Diffuse interstitial lung disease, Sarcoidosis
Extrapulmonary causes of restrictive lung disorders
Neuromuscular or neurologic, thoracic cage, or pleural issues.
Lack of blood supply to provide oxygen
Lack of oxygen to blood tissue to the cells
Programmed death of the cell
Acute glomerular disease: Causes
Often associated with strep infections, Hep. C, drugs/toxins, vascular disorders, systemic diseases
Acute glomerular disease: Signs and symptoms
Reduced GFR, 10-21 days post infection, hematuria, smoky urine, proteinuria, increased renin, edema, hypertension, and ascites.
Chronic glomerular disease: Casues
Damage to renal system due to inflammatory response with antibody/antigen activity in the glomerulus.
Chronic glomerular disease: Signs and symptoms
BP may be normal for years, then finally begin to have renal insufficiency, uremia, nephrotic syndrome, and end stage renal disease.
Nephrotic syndrome: Causes
Loss of plasma proteins occurs across the injured glomerulus - increased permeability to protein (albumin mainly) into the filtrate
Nephrotic syndrome: Signs and symptoms
Excretion of 3.5g or more of protein in the urine/day, hypoalbuminemia, generalized edema, hypotension, renin/aldosterone, severe edema.
Inflammation of the sinus passages
welling and possible infection of the sinus tissue from common cold, anatomical abnormality, allergies, polyps, immune deficiencies, and dental diseases, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Inflammation of the pharynx
Accounts for 80% of missed school days in children
Infants may have difficulty nursing
Children may be anorexic
May be associated with diarrhea and nausea
Inflammation of the larynx
Often viral & associated with rhinitis,bronchitis
Also occurs with intense coughing (pertussis, pneumonia etc.)
Excessive use, or GERD can also precipitate irritation
Bluge of one side of the artery wall
Entire circumference is affected
Separation of the intima from the medial layer
Ages 40 -70 are most common, Chest pain (often sudden in onset), often pain radiates to back
Men over age 60 have highest incidence, Asymptomatic, pulsating mass in abdomen (lateral).
Normal total red cell count with a disturbance in regulation of plasma volume.(same amt. of RBC but the volume increased)
Those types of anemia with an actual decrease in the numbers of red cells. Can be caused by a decreased production of red cells or an increased destruction of red cells.
Conditions with an increased number of red cells.
Anemia: Inherited disorders
Thalassemia, sickle cell disorder, hereditary spherocytosis, G6PD.
Anemia: Extrinsic factors
Hemolytic disease of the newborn, acute blood loss.
Tetralogy of Fallot
A rare condition caused by a combination of four heart defects that are present at birth.
Vent septal defect
Malposition of aorta
Venous stasis: Etiology
aging; poor CV output; poor venous return
Venous stasis: Clinical manifestations
Reddish-brown color (distal to proximal)
Pain in dependent position
Edema & inflammation
Varicose veins: Etiology
Valve problems in veins; can't move blood from extremities, obesity; congenital; venous obstruction; standing
Varicose veins: Clinical manifestations
mild to severe pain; legs cramps; swelling
Thromboangilitis obliterans: Etiology
Men; 20-40 years; Higher in Israel, Asia, and India
Thromboangilitis obliterans: Pathology
Inflammatory disease of small to medium peripheral arteries & veins. Causes unknown.
Chronic occlusive arterial disease: Etiology
Affects large & medium size arteries , occlusion of coronary arteries, occlusion of peripheral arteries, emboli, thrombosis, trauma
Chronic occlusive arterial disease: Patho
Clots lodge in arteries and cause blood supply to cease distal to the embolus; usually unilateral
Acute arterial occlusion
cute thrombus /embolism, trauma, external compression.
Acute arterial occlusion
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