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1.3; 6.1; 6.2; 9.1; 9.2; 10.1; 12.1

James Watt

Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry; powered machinery like cotton weavers

Robert Fulton

Inventor of the steamboat, which as a boat that had a powerful steam engine. These enabled boats to travel upstream on rivers, thus increasing trade while at the same time improving inter and state transportation.

Cao Xuegin

An author who wrote The Dream of the Red Chamber, which was considered China's most distinguished novel. It tells a story of a tragic love between two people caught in financial and moral disintegration of a powerful Chinese clan

Emperor Yong Le

Ming dynasty emperor; began construction on the Imperial City 1406; also sent Zheng He on Seven voyages


group of Indo-European nomadic people originally from central Asia; excelled at the art of war, and eventually controlled all of India

Siddhartha Gautama

born 563; "Buddha" or "enlightened one"


ruled the Mauryan Empire for ≈ 40 years; considered one of greatest Indian emperors; set up hospitals for people and animals, and sent missionaries to China

Silk Road

a well known route in the regional trade routes that was named because silk was China's most valuable product; covers 4,000 miles

Qin Shihuangdi

founder of Qin dynasty; his name means "first Qin Emperor"; unified Chinese world; built the Great Wall of China no keep nomads out


philosopher living in 6th century; large percent of Chinese pupils studied his sayings up until 20th century

Vasco da Gama

Portuguese explorer; made a profit of several thousand percent from trading in Calicut

Christopher Columbus

Italian; thought he could sail from Spain to Asia by sailing west instead of east; explored coast of Cuba and Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Rep.)

John Cabot

a Venetian seaman who explored the New England coastline of Americas for England

Amerigo Vespucci

A Florentine; went on several voyages and wrote letters about what he saw; named Americas after him

Francisco Pizarro

led expedition that took control of Incan Empire in Peruvian Andes

Ferdinand Magellan

landed in the Philippines before Spanish established themselves

King Afonso

King of Congo(Bakongo); wrote a letter to King of Portugal in 1526 stating he was concerned about the impact of slave trade on the well-being of their societies


society of eastern Nigeria that was based on independent villages; were active traders, and produced more slaves that other continents


Chinese dynasty: 1368-1644

Zheng He

Chinese court official that led seven voyages from 1405 to 1431


Chinese farming and hunting people who lived northwest of Great Wall in area known as Manchuria


Chinese dynasty: "pure"; 1644-1911


ruled from 1661 to 1722 (61 years); known as greatest Chinese emperor


Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus

Nicholas Copernicus

Polish; mathematician and astronomer; created heliocentric concept of the universe

Galileo Galilei

first European to make observations of the sky with a telescope; discovered that "orbs of light" were made of material substance; got him in trouble with the church (his observations contradicted the Bible)

Issac Newton

math professor at Cambridge University; 3 laws of motion in his book- Principia

Robert Boyle

one of the first scientists to conduct controlled experiments on the porpertiess of gases. Boyle's Law

Margaret Cavendish

one of the most prominent female scientists of the 17th century; came from an aristocratic society

Maria Winkelmann

the most famous female astronomer in Germany; discovered a comet and learned astronomy from a self-taught astronomer

René Descartes

French philosopher; emphasized that importance of his own mind and asserted that he would accept only things that his reason said were true

Francis Bacon

developed scientific theory; not an actual scientist; English philosopher; thought that scientists should proceed from particular to general (inductive reasoning)

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