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muscle and functions

Transverse abdominis

Lies deep to the internal and external abdominal and works with them to compress the abdomen.


Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing

Superficial Erector Spinae; Illiocostalis, longissimus, and spinalis

The erector group which lies lateral and superficial to the multifidus allow for extension and posterior translation when the muscles are contracted bilaterally.

Quadratus Lumborum

Arises from the iliac crest which extends between the transverse processes of the 5th lumbar vertebra


Acts primarily as a sagital rotator

Latissimus dorsi

A strong extensor, internal rotator, and adductor of the glenohumeral joint

Serratus Anterior

Protracts the scapula and is active in reaching and pulling


Adduct the scapula and rotate downward

Lower Trapezius

Causes scapula depression

Middle Trapezius

Causes scapula retraction

Upper Trapezius

Cause upward motion of the scapula

Pectoralis Major

The anterior muscles of the shoulder joint. A prime mover inadduction, horizontal adduction, and internat rotation of the humerus.

Pectoralis Minor

Causes protraction, downward rotation, and depression of the scapula

Anterior Deltoid

Responsible for shoulder flexion, horizontal adduction, and internal rotation of the glenohumeral

Middle Deltoid

A powerful abductor of the glenohumeral joint

Posterior Deltoid

Glenohumeral extension, horizontal abduction, and external rotation oppose those of the anterior deltoid.

Teres Major

Extends, adducts and medially rotate the humerus at the shoulder joint.

Teres Minor

Inserts on the humerus and extends the humerus.


Rotates the shoulder laterally


Acts to rotate the humerus medialy and stabilizes the shoulder joint


Inserts on the humerus and abducts the shoulder

Biceps Brachii

Affects the shoulder, elbow and radioulnar joints

Triceps Brachii

The chief extensor of the elbow; in addition the long head stabilizes the shoulder joint


Flexes the forearm at the elbow


The strongest flexor of the elbow.

Levator Scapulae

Produces elevation and downward rotation of scapula and also act on the neck


Contraction of one side: laterally flexes neck, rotates head to opposite side; Contraction of both sides together: flexes neck


flex neck (when 1st rib is fixed); elevate 1st and 2nd ribs during forced inhalation when neck is fixed

Longus Colli

Acts to flex and rotate the neck

Longus Capitis

Inserts on the occipital bone to flex the atlanto-occipital joint

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