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59 terms

Pharmacology Ch. 2 Terms

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Additive effects
Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone (1 + 1 = 2)
Adverse drug event
Any undesirable occurrence related to administering or failing to administer a prescribed medication
Adverse drug reaction
Any unexpected, unintended, undesired, or excessive response to a medication given at therapeutic dosages (as opposed to overdose)
Agonist
A drug that binds to and stimulates the activity of one or more receptors in the body
Allergic reaction
An immunologic hypersensitivity reaction resulting from the unusual sensitivity of a patient to a particular medication; a type of adverse drug event
Antagonist
A drug that binds to and inhibits the activity of one or more receptors in the body; also called inhibitors
Antagonistic effects
Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs is less than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone (1 + 1 = less than 2); it is usually caused by a blocking or reducing effect of one drug on another
Bioavailability
A measure of the extent of drug absorption for a given drug and route (from 0% to 100%)
Biotransformation
One or more biochemical reactions involving a parent drug; occurs mainly in the liver and produces a metabolite that is either inactive or active; also known as metabolism
Blood-brain barrier
The barrier system that restricts the passage of various chemicals and microscopic entities (e.g., bacteria, viruses) between the bloodstream and the central nervous system; still allows for the passage of essential substances such as oxygen
Chemical name
The name that describes the chemical composition and molecular structure of a drug
Contraindication
Any condition, especially one related to a disease state or other patient characteristic, including current or recent drug therapy, that renders a particular form of treatment improper or undesirable
Cytochrome P-450
The general name for a large class of enzymes that play a significant role in drug metabolism
Dependence
A state in which there is a compulsive or chronic need, as for a drug
Dissolution
The process by which solid forms of drugs disintegrate in the gastrointestinal tract and become soluble before being absorbed into the circulation
Drug
Any chemical that affects the physiologic processes of a living organism
Drug actions
The cellular processes involved in the interaction between a drug and body cells (e.g., how the drug works on a receptor protein); also called mechanism of action
Drug effects
The physiologic reactions of the body to a drug; can be therapeutic or toxic and describe how the function of the body is affected as a whole by the drug; terms onset, peak, and duration are used to describe these
Drug-induced teratogenesis
The development of congenital anomalies or defects in the developing fetus caused by the toxic effects of drugs
Drug interaction
Alteration in the pharmacologic activity of a given drug caused by the presence of one or more additional drugs; usually related to effects on the enzymes required for metabolism of the involved drugs
Duration of action
The length of time the concentration of a drug in the blood or tissues is sufficient to elicit a response
Enzymes
Protein molecules that catalyze one or more of a variety of biochemical reactions, including those related to the body's own physiologic processes as well as those related to drug metabolism
First-pass effect
The initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the GI tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream
Generic name
The name given to a drug by the United States Adopted Names Council; also called the nonproprietary name; much shorter and simpler than the chemical name and is not protected by trademark
Half-life
In pharmacokinetics, the time required for half of the administered dose of drug to be eliminated by the body, or the time it takes for the blood level of a drug to be reduced by 50%
Idiosyncratic reaction
An abnormal and unexpected response to a medication, other than an allergic reaction, that is peculiar to an individual patient
Incompatibility
The characteristic that causes two parenteral drugs or solutions to undergo a reaction when mixed or given together that results in the chemical deterioration of at least one of the drugs
Intraarticular
Within a join
Intrathecal
Within a sheath (such as an injection into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord)
Medication error
Any preventable adverse drug event involving inappropriate medication use by a patient or health care professional; may or may not cause patient harm
Medication use process
The prescribing, dispensing, and administering of medications, and the monitoring of their effects
Metabolite(s)
A chemical form of a drug that is the product of one or more biochemical reactions involving the parent drug
Active metabolites
Metabolites that have pharmacologic activity of their own, even if the parent drug is inactive
Inactive metabolites
Metabolites that lack pharmacologic activity and are simply drug waste products awaiting excretion from the body
Onset of action
The time required for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response after dosing
Parent drug
The chemical form of a drug that is administered before it is metabolized by the body's biochemical reactions into its active or inactive metabolites
Peak effect
The time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response in the body
Peak level
The maximum concentration of a drug in the body after administration, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring
Pharmaceutics
The science of preparing and dispensing drugs, including dosage form design
Pharmacodynamics
the study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity; examines the physicochemical properties of drugs and their pharmacologic interactions with body receptors
Pharmacogenetics
The study of the influence of genetic factors on drug response, including the nature of genetic aberrations that result in the absence, overabundance, or insufficiency of drug-metabolizing enzymes
Pharmacognosy
The study of drugs that are obtained from natural plant and animal sources
Pharmacokinetics
The rate of drug distribution among various body compartments after a drug has entered the body; includes the phases of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs
Pharmacology
The broadest term for the study or science of drugs
Pharmacotherapeutics
The treatment of pathologic conditions through the use of drugs
Prodrug
An inactive drug dosage form that is converted to an active metabolite by various biochemical reactions once it is inside the body
Receptor
A molecular structure within or on the outer surface of a cell; bind specific substances and one or more corresponding cellular effects occurs as a result of this interaction
Steady state
The physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each dose
Substrates
Substances on which an enzyme acts
Synergistic effects
Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone (1 + 1 = >2)
Therapeutic drug monitoring
The process of measuring drug peak and trough levels to gauge the level of a patients drug exposure and allow adjustment of dosages with the goals of maximizing therapeutic effects and minimizing toxicity
Therapeutic effect
The desired or intended effect of a particular medication
Therapeutic index
The ration between the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug
Tolerance
Reduced response to a drug after prolonged use
Toxic
The quality of being poisonous
Toxicity
The condition of producing adverse bodily effects due to poisonous qualities
Toxicology
The study of poisons, including toxic drug effects, and applicable treatments
Trade name
The commercial name given to a drug product by its manufacturer; also called the proprietary name
Trough level
The lowest concentration of drug reached in the body after it falls from its peak level, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring