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37 terms

Anthropology exam 3 chapter 9

STUDY
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One of the chief advantages of slash and burn cultivation is that
produces food without complex technology
While studying the Yanomamo, Napoleon Chagnon found that soil depletion was not the only reason these peoples move thier garden plots. His research found that:
major populations movements of the Yanomamo were due to warfare and conflict with neighbors.
Antrhopologists use the term pastoralists to refer to peoples who
rely primarily on herd animals such a caribou, cattle, sheep or goats
Nuer subsistence, like that of many other pastoral peoples
depends heavily upon the blood and milk of their animals
Compared with hunting and gathering band level societies, tribal societies are
larger, more sedentary and have fairly well defined territories.
Property rights in tribal societies
are usually vested in the family and other finship groupings
Unilineal descent groups are lineage groups that
trace their ancestry to either the fathers or the mothers ancestors
a few tribal societies practice what is called___ in which relatives are traced thru both maternal and paternal sides of the family simultaneously
bilater descent
A clan is a special kind of descent group whose members are define by
common descent from unknown or sacred beings, such a special animals or plants
Which of the following secent groups is likely to result in the most flexible and loosely structured corporate social unit.
a clan
When two or more clans recognize that they share a common genealogical relationship, the more general grouping of these clans is known as a
phratry
A society that is organized into moieties has a particular social organization that structures it into:
equal halves with specific functions
Levi Strauss has used the term generalized exchange to refer to a cycle of marital exchange in which among Lineages A,B,c
Lineage B always give women to Line A but takes its wives from Line C
Polygyny in tribal socieites is most closely related to
bride service
When the descent group of a man transfers some of its wealth to the descent group of a woman at or around the time of their marriage this practice is
bridewealth
The most important belief underlying the practice of having a widow marry one of her brother in law is
the rights of the deceased husband must be preserved
Among the functions of bridewealth is
compensation to her family for the loss of a womans labor
The most common form of polyandry is ___ in which brothers share a wife.
fraternal polyandry
When a married couple goes to live in the house of the brother of the husbands mother the post miarital residence pattern is referred to as
avunculocal
In most tribal societies rules of descent marriage and residence are
unconscious, and therefore defined mostly by outsiders
In general divorces are most common among societies that are
matrilineal and matrilocal
Deborah Gewertz who has re examined meads interpretations of the Tchambuli arrived at the conclusion that
meads interpretations failed to take specific historical circumstances into account
Most modern anthropologists have come to the conclusion that matriarchy
is not part of the archaeological, historical and ethnographic record
Sociobiologists view patriarchy in tribal societies as a consequence of
reproductive strategies in which male competition for females leads to conflict
It has been suggested that the status of women in tribal societies
is related to how much they contribute to the subsistence activities of the group
Corporate groups of people of about the same age who share specific rights, obligations, duries and privileges within a society and progress through various stages of life together are called
age sets
The term gerontocracy refers to governance by
a group of village elders
One type of sodlity is defined as
an association of individuals that cuts across kinship groups
Among the Yanomam the village headman leads
by example and persuasion rather than coercion
One of the ways that big men in melanesia can gain the allegiance of followers is to
impress them by sponsoring a feast of pig meat from hi s familys herd
Likeband societies tribal societies
have decentralized political systems in which authority is vested among a number of individuals groups and associatiosn
A form of tribal political organiztion found based on mulitple descent groups, that are interrelated and serve certain political functions is known as
segmentary lineage system
One of the most significant causes of warfare among tribal horticulturalist societies is
acquisition of land
In tribal socieites, disputes and conflicts are usually resolved by
skilled individuals who function as medicators or negotiators
Among the Azande of East Africa, crop failures were typically attributed to
witchcraft
Among many tribal societies, sorcery provides a way of explaining
severe illnesses and the spread of disease
Totems are animals, spriits or deities that have specific links to
a particular descent group