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applied science

research that focuses on developing applications of knowledge gained through basic research

basic research

research that leads to a greater understanding of how the natural world operates


the study of matter and the transformations it can undergo


a close agreement by competent observers who make a series of observations about the same phenomenon


anything that has mass and occupies space


an organized body of knowledge resulting from our observations, common sense, rational thinking, and insight into nature

scientific hypothesis

a testable explanation for an observable phenomenon

scientific law

a general hypothesis or statement about a relationship of natural quantities that has been tested and supported by experimental data over and over again; also known as a principle

scientific theory

a well-tested hypothesis that unifies a broad range of observations within the natural world


the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes

absolute zero

the lowest possible temperature, which is the temperature at which atoms of a substance have no kinetic energy: 0 K = -273.15C = -459.7F


a medieval field of study concerned primarily with finding potions that would produce gold or confer immortality


extremely small fundamental unit of matter

Avagadro's Law

a gas law that describes the direct relationship between the volume of a gas and the number of gas particles it contains at constant pressure and temperature. The greater the number of particles, the greater the volume.


evaporation in which bubbles form beneath the liquid's surface

Boyle's Law

a gas law that describes the indirect relationship between the pressure of a gas sample and its volume at constant temperature. The smaller the volume, the greater the pressure;
P(1)V(1) = P(2)V(2)

Charles' Law

a gas law that describes the direct relationship between the volume of a gas sample and its temperature at constant pressure. The greater the temperature, the greater the volume. V(1)/T(1) = V(2)/T(2)


the transformation of a gas to a liquid


the amount of mass contained in a sample divided by the volume of a sample; how compact


the capacity to do work


the transformation of a liquid to a gas


the transformation of a liquid to a solid


matter that has neither definite volume or a definite shape, always filling any space available to it


the energy that flows from one object to another because of a temperature difference between the two

Ideal gas law

a gas law that summarizes the pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles of a gas within a single equation, often expressed as PV = nRT, where P is pressure, V is volume, n is the number of molecules, R is the gas constant, and T is the temperature

kinetic energy

energy due to motion; the capacity to do work because of its motion

kinetic molecular theory

a theory that explains solids, liquids and gases in terms of them consisting of rapidly moving tiny particles, either atoms or molecules or both


matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape, assuming the shape of its container


the quantitative measure of how much matter an object contains


the transformation of a solid to a liquid


an extremely small fundamental structure built of atoms

potential energy

stored energy; energy due to position


matter that has a definite volume and a definite shape


describes the realm of atoms and molecules, where objects are smaller than can be detected by optical microscopes


a measure of how warm or cold an object is relative to some standard. also a measure of the average kinetic energy per molecule of a substance, measured in degrees Celsius, degrees Fahrenheit, or kelvins.


an instrument to measure temperature


the amount of space an object occupies


the gravitational force exerted on an object by the nearest most massive body, such as earth

atomic symbol

an abbreviation for an element or atom

chemical bond

the force of attraction between two atoms that holds them together

chemical change

the formation of new substance(s) by rearranging the atoms of the original material(s)

chemical formula

a notation that indicates the composition of a compound, consisting of the atomic symbols for the different elements of the compound and numerical subscripts indicating the ratio in which the atoms combine

chemical property

a type of property that characterizes the ability of a substance to change into a different substance under specific circumstances

chemical reaction

a term synonymous with chemical change


a material in which atoms of different elements are bonded to one another


a material consisting of only one type of atom

elemental formula

a notation that uses the atomic symbol and (sometimes) a numerical subscript to denote how many atoms are bonded in one unit of an element


a vertical column in the periodic table, also known as a family of elements; 18

heterogeneous mixture

a mixture in which the different components can be seen as individual substances

homogeneous mixture

a mixture in which the components are so finely mixed that any one region of the mixture has the same ratio of substances as any other region


the state of a material that is a mixture of more than one element or compound


an element that is shiny, opaque, and able to conduct electricity and heat; also malleable and ductile


an element that exhibits some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals. boron, B; silicon, Si; germanium, Ge; arsenic, As; antimony, Sb; tellurium, Te


a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its properties


an element located toward the upper right of the periodic table, with the exception of hydrogen, that is neither a metal or a metalloid


a horizontal row on the periodic table; 7

periodic table

a chart in which all the known elements are organized by their physical and chemical properties

periodic trend

the gradual change of any property in the elements across a period of the periodic table

physical change

a change in which a substance changes its physical properties without changing its chemical identity

physical property

any physical attribute of a substance, such as color, density, or hardness


the state of a material that consists solely of a single element or compound

scanning probe microscope

a tool of nanotechnology that detects and characterizes the surface atoms of materials by way of an ultra-thin probe tip, whose movements are detected by laser light as it is mechanically dragged over the surface


a homogeneous mixture in which all of the components are dissolved in the same phase


a homogeneous mixture in which the various components are finely mixed but not dissolved

chemical energy

potential energy stored in atoms and molecules


force x distance

exothermic reaction

heat exits reaction to surroundings

endothermic reaction

heat goes into the reaction from the surroundings


system for naming compounds


the reasoning to reach a logical conclusion


process of generalizing from a set of observations


the process of devising a hypothesis to explain that which we observe


the transformation of a gas to a solid


the transformation of a solid to a gas

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