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74 terms

Conceptual Chemistry Ch 1, 2, & 3

Test 1
STUDY
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applied science
research that focuses on developing applications of knowledge gained through basic research
basic research
research that leads to a greater understanding of how the natural world operates
chemistry
the study of matter and the transformations it can undergo
fact
a close agreement by competent observers who make a series of observations about the same phenomenon
matter
anything that has mass and occupies space
science
an organized body of knowledge resulting from our observations, common sense, rational thinking, and insight into nature
scientific hypothesis
a testable explanation for an observable phenomenon
scientific law
a general hypothesis or statement about a relationship of natural quantities that has been tested and supported by experimental data over and over again; also known as a principle
scientific theory
a well-tested hypothesis that unifies a broad range of observations within the natural world
technology
the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes
absolute zero
the lowest possible temperature, which is the temperature at which atoms of a substance have no kinetic energy: 0 K = -273.15C = -459.7F
alchemy
a medieval field of study concerned primarily with finding potions that would produce gold or confer immortality
atom
extremely small fundamental unit of matter
Avagadro's Law
a gas law that describes the direct relationship between the volume of a gas and the number of gas particles it contains at constant pressure and temperature. The greater the number of particles, the greater the volume.
boiling
evaporation in which bubbles form beneath the liquid's surface
Boyle's Law
a gas law that describes the indirect relationship between the pressure of a gas sample and its volume at constant temperature. The smaller the volume, the greater the pressure;
P(1)V(1) = P(2)V(2)
Charles' Law
a gas law that describes the direct relationship between the volume of a gas sample and its temperature at constant pressure. The greater the temperature, the greater the volume. V(1)/T(1) = V(2)/T(2)
condensation
the transformation of a gas to a liquid
density
the amount of mass contained in a sample divided by the volume of a sample; how compact
energy
the capacity to do work
evaporation
the transformation of a liquid to a gas
freezing
the transformation of a liquid to a solid
gas
matter that has neither definite volume or a definite shape, always filling any space available to it
heat
the energy that flows from one object to another because of a temperature difference between the two
Ideal gas law
a gas law that summarizes the pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles of a gas within a single equation, often expressed as PV = nRT, where P is pressure, V is volume, n is the number of molecules, R is the gas constant, and T is the temperature
kinetic energy
energy due to motion; the capacity to do work because of its motion
kinetic molecular theory
a theory that explains solids, liquids and gases in terms of them consisting of rapidly moving tiny particles, either atoms or molecules or both
liquid
matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape, assuming the shape of its container
mass
the quantitative measure of how much matter an object contains
melting
the transformation of a solid to a liquid
molecule
an extremely small fundamental structure built of atoms
potential energy
stored energy; energy due to position
solid
matter that has a definite volume and a definite shape
submicroscopic
describes the realm of atoms and molecules, where objects are smaller than can be detected by optical microscopes
temperature
a measure of how warm or cold an object is relative to some standard. also a measure of the average kinetic energy per molecule of a substance, measured in degrees Celsius, degrees Fahrenheit, or kelvins.
thermometer
an instrument to measure temperature
volume
the amount of space an object occupies
weight
the gravitational force exerted on an object by the nearest most massive body, such as earth
atomic symbol
an abbreviation for an element or atom
chemical bond
the force of attraction between two atoms that holds them together
chemical change
the formation of new substance(s) by rearranging the atoms of the original material(s)
chemical formula
a notation that indicates the composition of a compound, consisting of the atomic symbols for the different elements of the compound and numerical subscripts indicating the ratio in which the atoms combine
chemical property
a type of property that characterizes the ability of a substance to change into a different substance under specific circumstances
chemical reaction
a term synonymous with chemical change
compound
a material in which atoms of different elements are bonded to one another
element
a material consisting of only one type of atom
elemental formula
a notation that uses the atomic symbol and (sometimes) a numerical subscript to denote how many atoms are bonded in one unit of an element
group
a vertical column in the periodic table, also known as a family of elements; 18
heterogeneous mixture
a mixture in which the different components can be seen as individual substances
homogeneous mixture
a mixture in which the components are so finely mixed that any one region of the mixture has the same ratio of substances as any other region
impure
the state of a material that is a mixture of more than one element or compound
metal
an element that is shiny, opaque, and able to conduct electricity and heat; also malleable and ductile
metalloid
an element that exhibits some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals. boron, B; silicon, Si; germanium, Ge; arsenic, As; antimony, Sb; tellurium, Te
mixture
a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its properties
nonmetal
an element located toward the upper right of the periodic table, with the exception of hydrogen, that is neither a metal or a metalloid
period
a horizontal row on the periodic table; 7
periodic table
a chart in which all the known elements are organized by their physical and chemical properties
periodic trend
the gradual change of any property in the elements across a period of the periodic table
physical change
a change in which a substance changes its physical properties without changing its chemical identity
physical property
any physical attribute of a substance, such as color, density, or hardness
pure
the state of a material that consists solely of a single element or compound
scanning probe microscope
a tool of nanotechnology that detects and characterizes the surface atoms of materials by way of an ultra-thin probe tip, whose movements are detected by laser light as it is mechanically dragged over the surface
solution
a homogeneous mixture in which all of the components are dissolved in the same phase
suspension
a homogeneous mixture in which the various components are finely mixed but not dissolved
chemical energy
potential energy stored in atoms and molecules
work
force x distance
exothermic reaction
heat exits reaction to surroundings
endothermic reaction
heat goes into the reaction from the surroundings
IPUAC
system for naming compounds
deduction
the reasoning to reach a logical conclusion
induction
process of generalizing from a set of observations
retroduction
the process of devising a hypothesis to explain that which we observe
deposition
the transformation of a gas to a solid
sublimation
the transformation of a solid to a gas