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Biology Trimester 2 Review
Terms in this set (175)
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function
bind to promoters or silencers to shut off or slow down transcription
recruit RNA polymerase to a promoter region to enhance transcription
distant DNA binding site for eukaryotic activators
allow translation of an mRNA close to where its protein product is being used. mRNA's are delivered to organelles or specific regions of cytoplasm via this. Prevents translation until mRNA reached final destination.
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
complementary in sequence to part of an mRNA, results in destruction of all mRNA complementary to it
the process of destroying all the complementary mRNA from microRNA.
affect the expression of many other genes. Regulates early stages of an organism's embryonic development
master genes who govern the formation of body parts
a region of 60 amino acids that bind directly to the promoter
a tightly condensed x chromosome in a female who's genes are no longer expressed
x chromosome inactivation
ensures that only one of the two x chromosomes in a female's cells are active
mechanism in which x chromosome activation equalizes gene expression in males and females
x chromosome gene, transcribed on only one of the two x chromosomes, long noncoding RNA, sticks to the chromosome that has that gene causing it to turn into a Barr body
the master gene on the Y chromosome that determines male sex. Triggers the formation of testes
Bacteria and gene expression
prokaryotes do not undergo development, no need for master genes, control gene expression by adjusting rate of transcription.
a region of genes together with a promoter operator DNA sequence that controls transcription.
allows E-coli cells to metabolize lactose. Three genes and two operators flanked around a promoter. One gene encodes an transport protein to bring lactose thru plasma membrane. The other gene encodes an enzyme that breaks lactose into glucose and galactose. Third is unknown.
expression of the gene for lactase shuts off, lactose passes undigested through the small intestine - large intestine - Ecoli=gas. 1/3 of humans have ability to digest milk. 2/3 lactose intolerant
suppresses/silences gene expression, once a nucleotide become this it stays that way forever. epigenetic mutation.
heritable changes in gene expression that are not due to changes in the DNA sequence.
collective series of events that an organism passes thru during its life time.
series of events from when the cell was formed until its cytoplasm divides
interval between mitotic division when a cell grows. Cell roughly doubles number of cytoplasmic components and replicates its DNA.
stage of interphase - metabolic activities
stage of interphase - DNA synthesis
stage of interphase - protein synthesis
process of nuclear division that maintains the cell number
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number. 2n
they monitor completion of DNA copying, DNA damage, nutrient availability.
chromosomes further condense, one of the two centrosomes move to the opposite end of the cell, microtubules lengthen and assemble-forming spindle, nuclear envelope breaks up, sister chromatids are attached at opposite centrosomes
all chromosomes are aligned midway between spindle poles
sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite spindle poles
chromosomes arrive at opposite spindle poles and decondense - two new nuclei form
animal cell cytokinesis
these cells pinch themselves in two after nuclear division, spindle disassembles, contractile rings drag plasma membrane inward, cleavage furrow forms
plant cell cytokinesis
dividing this face a challenge because cell wall surrounds plasma mem. short microtubules form on either side of future plane of division, disk shaped structure called cell plate forms and eventually partitions the cytoplasm becoming the cell walls in the two new cells.
first cloned mammal, a lamb from an adult somatic cell, short telomeres.
noncoding repeat DNA sequences, found at end of chromosomes, provide a buffer against more valuable loss
immortal cells that retain the ability to divide indefinitely replacing all cell lineages that die out. continually produce telomerases
an enzyme that reverse the telomere shortening that normally occurs after DNA replication. Cancer has high levels of telomerases
accumulation of abnormally dividing cells
a neoplasm that forms a lump
genes that help transform a normal cell into a tumor cell
gene that by mutation can become an oncogene
checkpoint gene products that inhibit mitosis, tumors form when checkpoint gene products r missing.
disease that occurs when a malignant neoplasm physically and metabolically disrupts body tissues
process in which malignant cells spread from one part of the body to another
diploid chromosome number is restored here, two haploid gametes fuse a zygote
Fusion of male and female gametes.
a cell formed by the fusion of two gametes. First cell of a new individual
a single individual gives rise to identical offspring
two individuals mix genetic material
carry genes from ma and pa,
Chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic content. Vary in alleles
different forms of the same gene
process of nuclear division mechanism that occurs in reproductive cells of eukaryotes. Halves the chromosome number
specialized cells that are the basis of sexual reproduction. Haploid
immature reproductive cells
homologous chromosomes condense, pair up, and swap segments (crossing over), spindle microtubules attach to chromosomes as the nuclear envelope breaks up
homologous chromosome pairs are aligned midway between spindle poles
homologous chromosomes separate and begin heading towards the spindle poles
two clusters of chromosomes reach the spindle poles, new nuclear envelope from around each cluster of two haploid nuclei form
chromosomes condense, nuclear envelope breaks up, spindle microtubules attach to each sister chromatid
chromosomes are aligned midway between poles of the spindle.
all sister chromatids separate, now unduplicated chromosomes head to spindle poles
complete set of chromosomes cluster at each spindle pole, new nuclear envelope encloses each cluster of four haploid nuclei.
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
bread pea plants to see how traits were passed from generation to the next.
location of a gene on a chromosome
individual carrying identical alleles for a gene
individual carrying differed alleles for a gene
heterozygous offspring of a cross between individuals that bred true for different forms of a trait
particular set of alleles
the observable traits that make up an individual
allele's effect masks that of recessive
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
a grid used to predict the genetic and phenotypic outcome of a cross
breeding experiments to find the genotype. Dominant trait individual, crossed with homo recessive. If all offspring have dominant trait, then the unknown genotype is homozygous for dominant allele. If any offspring have recessive traits than its heterozygous.
breeding experiment in which individuals identically heterozygous for one gene are crossed. F1- generation 1, F2 - generation 2, parent generation began it.
law of segregation
Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
individuals identically heterozygous for alleles of two genes are crossed and traits of the offspring are observed. 9:3:3:1
all genes on a chromosome. genes far apart assort into gametes independently, very close are linked(crossing over rarely happens)
a dominant allele fully masks that expression of a recessive one.
two alleles that are fully expressed in heterozygous individuals
multiple allele systems
gene for which 3 or more alleles persist in a population (ABO gene for blood type)
one allele is not fully dominant over another, the heterozygous phenotype is between the two homozygous phenotypes. red + white = pink
trait is influenced by the products of multiple genes. (Fur color in dogs)
a gene influences multiple traits (sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, marfan syndrome)
short tandem repeats
some genes have regions of DNA that are 2 to 6 nucleotides long in a series repeated hundreds of times.
allow geneticists to determine the probability that a trait will recur in future generations.
a chart that shows a trait in a family and how it is inherited
trait controlled by two or more genes. Most human genes are this
Autosomal dominant pattern
if trait specifies appears in homozygous and heterozygous people. Appears every generation. Achondroplasia, huntingtons disease, polydactyly
autosome recessive pattern
expressed only in homozygous people, skip generations. PPl heterozygous for this allele are carriers.
An individual who is heterozygous for a recessively inherited disorder and who therefore does not show symptoms of that disorder but who may pass on the recessive allele to offspring. Albinism, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, tay sachs disease.
x linked recessive pattern
this disorder appears in men more often then women, women are carriers for this, men transmit this to daughters, and only women can pass this to sons. Red/green colorblind, hemophilia, muscular dystrophies
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
x linked recessive disorder, caused protein dystrophin to be absent and muscle and nerve cells get replaced by fat cells
x linked recessive disorder, interferes with blood clotting
repeated section of a chromosome, occur during prophase 1 of meiosis, cause genetic abnormalities - Huntingtons disease
loss of a part of a chromosome, DMD and criduchat
structural rearrangement of a chromosome, reverse direction
translocation of a chromosome
part of a chromosome gets reattached in the wrong location,
occurs by large scale changes in chromosomes
individuals have 3 or more of each type of chromosome, lethal in humans, regular in plants fish, and animals
failure of sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes to separate during nuclear division, changes in chromosome #.
to less or to many copies of a chromosome. lethal in embryos
Down Syndrome, normal gamete fuses with a n+1 gamete, new individual is trisomic (2n+1), mental impairment
A genetic condition of having three chromosomes instead of two. The conidtion causes various birth defects (XXX, XXY, XYY)
female sex chromosome abnormality that causes an x chromosome and no responding chromosome (XO). ovaries do not develop, insufficient sex hormones
(XXY) boys tend to be overweight, tall, intelligent, more estrogen
can estimate probability that a child will inherit a genetic disorder
testing of an embryo or fetus to reveal genetic abnormalities before birth
A virus that infects bacteria
cuts DNA wherever a specific nucleotide occurs, allows for combing DNA fragments
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources. m
Single stranded ends of DNA left after cutting with enzymes
A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of the bacterial chromosome
mRNA transcripts of genes, reverse transcriptase transcribed single stranded RNA into cDNA
transcribes single stranded RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA)
entire set of genetic material of an organism. 1000's of genes
sets of cells that host cloned DNA fragments
contains all DNA in a genome
contains only those genes being expressed when mRNA was harvested
a cell that contains a particular DNA fragment of interest is mixed up with millions that do not. Fragment labeled with tracer.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
technique used to mass produce copies of sections of DNA without having to clone living cells. Uses primers - short strand of DNA designed to hybridize with DNA fragment
reveals the orders of bases in DNA, determines the order of nucleotides in DNA
separates fragments by length into bands, pulls fragments through semisolid gel, dif sizes move at dif rates
the study of genomes
identifies an individual by their DNA
single nucleotide polymorphism
the 1% difference among humans of the population
process by which an individual's genome is deliberately modified. produces a genetically modified organism (GMO) - most common is bacteria, engineered for drought tolerance and nutrition
genetically engineered crop plants with tumor inducing plasmid genes from bacteria - resistant to disease
gene is transferred into body cells to correct a genetic defect or treat a disease
severe combined immunodeficiency on X chromosome
idea of deliberately improving the genetic qualities of the human race
covers body surfaces, lines internal cavities
holds body parts together, structural support
moves the body or its parts
detects stimuli from external and internal info
internal environment in which cells live
In connective tissue, cells that secrete the proteins of the fibers.
cells surrounded by a rubbery matrix of own secretions
mineral hardened matrix
skeletal muscle tissue
helps move and maintain the positions of the body parts, cylindrical, striated
cardiac muscle tissue
found in the heart wall, involuntary, striated, branching cells
smooth muscle tissue
found in the wall of blood vessels and organs, unbranched
cells that transmit electrical signals along membrane and chemical messages
protects body from injury, dehydrations, moderates temp, excretes waste, skin
detects external and internal stimuli, coordinates responses, integrate organ system, brain - spinal cord
secretes hormones that control other organ systems
moves the body and its parts, maintain temp, posture, muscles
supports and protects body parts, bones, rbc's
distributes materialas and heat through the body, heart blood vessels
colelcts and returns tissue fluid to the blood defense the body against infections, lymphnodes
takes in o2 and releases co2
takes in food and water, absorbs nutrients, eliminates residues, esophagus, stomach instestine
maintains volume and composition of blood, excretes excess fluid, kidneys, bladders
female produces eggs, nourishes and protects developing offrspring.
stratified squamous epithelium with adhering junctions
dense connective tissue with elastin fibers
protects skin from absorbing UV - vitamin D
noncellular infectious agents - protein coat around DNA/RNA
virus that infects bacteria through lytic or lysogenic
enveloped RNA virus that causes AIDS, replicates inside human white blood cells
RNA viruses that use reverse transcriptase to produce viral DNA in a host (HIV)
a small, RNA, circular and single stranded without a protein coat
rod shaped bacteria
spiral shaped bacteria
asexual reproduction, replication of a single circular chromosome. two genetical individuals
once cell gives a plasmid to the other with a pilli.
produce oxygen during photosynthesis, nitrogen fixate - algae,
method used to prepare bacteria for examination under a microscope
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