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91 terms

rhetoric

STUDY
PLAY
Tone
attitude the narrator wants the reader to take toward a setting, character, or idea
Mood
emotional response of the reader
Diction
word choice
Denotation
dictionary definition of a word
Connotation
emotional definition of a word
Subtext
meaning or emotion underneath the words
Assonance
repetition of vowel sounds
Consonance
same ending sounds
Alliteration
same beginning sound
Onomatopoeia
sound words, imitative harmony
Imagery
words that create mental pictures
Personification
inanimate objects or abstract ideas given human characteristics
Pathetic Fallacy
a form of personification - only it is not a character in the story
Simile
a comparison using like or as
Metaphor
a direct comparison
Extended Metaphor
a metaphor which changes and grows throughout the story
Controlling Metaphor
a metaphor around which the entire story revolves
Metonymy
describing something indirectly by referring to things around it
Synecdoche
a part is used to represent the whole (crown=king)
Pathos
words which evoke sorrow
Bathos
reaching for the sublime, the tone results in the absurd
Allusion
literary, historical, artistic reference
Aphorism
a short witty statement
Apostrophe
form of personification, speaking to an absent or dead person or object as if it is there
Motif
pattern; repeated image, symbol, idea
Symbol
a word that represents a larger idea or concept
Colloquial
the use of slang in writing
Dialect
the recreation of regional spoken language
Cliche
an overused expression
Conceit
a particularly clever extended metaphor
Inference
a conclusion drawn from presented details
Epitaph
an inscription on a tombstone
Epigraph
the use of a quotation at the beginning of the work which often hints at a theme
Eulogy
a formal speech praising one who has died
Homily
a sermon or moralistic lecture
Didactic
writing whose purpose is to instruct or teach
Pedantic
scholarly, academic writing that is difficult to understand
Figurative Language
literary devices that enable an author to operate on levels other than the literal (simile, metaphor, etc)
Oratory
a formal, often pompous, speech
Jargon
technical, specialized language
Irony
an unexpected outcome
Verbal Irony
saying one thing but meaning the opposite
Situational Irony
unexpected outcome in the plot
Dramatic Irony
where the audience knows more than the character
Oxymoron
contrasting words placed together for effect
Paradox
statement that contradicts itself - "the more you learn the less you know"
Pun
a play on words that are identical or similar in sounds but differ in meaning
Hyperbole
exaggeration
Understatement
making a situation seem less important or serious than it is
Euphemism
making something sound nicer than it is; candy-coated words
Antithesis
direct contrast or opposite
Satire
a political comment through the use of humor
Parody
a comic imitation that ridicules the original. It can be mocking or gently humorous
Sarcasm
type of irony in which a person seems to be praising something but actually insulting
Subtext
meaning or emotion underneath the words
Zeugma
a type of pun where the use of a word modifies two or more words, but used for different meanings (On the fishing trip, he caught three trout and a cold.)
Ambiguity
deliberately unclear, having multiple meanings
Conflict
choices a character makes in relation to an obstacle (problem)
Characterization
change and growth of the character
Foil
character whose behavior and values contrast with those of another character
Archetype
a detail, image, or character type that occurs frequently in myth and literature, thought to appeal to the unconscious
Point of attack
when the story begins
Exposition
events that take place before the story begins
Flashback
a device that enables a writer to refer to past thoughts, events, episodes
Epiphany
a moment of great revelation
Foreshadowing
clues that tip the reader off as to what is to come later in the work
Anecdote
ashort account of an interesting or humorous incident, intended to illustrate or support some point
Climax
point of understanding or awakening (not necessarily emotional)
Anticlimax
when the reader expects a climax to occur and it doesn't happen
Denouement
the "unravelling" or resolution of the story, falling action
Setting
time and place of a story
Theme
the underlying message
Allegory
a story that functions on the symbolic level
Parable
a story that operates on the symbolic level and teaches a lesson or moral
Syntax
word order or organization
Parallelism
sentences, or parts of a sentence with similar structure
Repetition
using the same word or phrase for emphasis
Anaphora
repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of consecutive lines or sentences
Chiasmus
a statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is reversed ("Susan walked, and in rushed Mary.")
Deductive Reasoning
a form of logic that moves from the general to the specific
Inductive Reasoning
a form a logic that moves from the specific to the general
Syllogism
a formal argument that consists of a major premise, a minor one, and a conclusion
Analogy
a comparison between two dissimilar ideas or things
Rhetorical Question
a question that does not expect an explicit answer
Antithesis
direct contrast or opposite
Juxtaposition
words, phrases, ideas placed side by side for effect
Ad Hominem
a rhetorical strategy that attacks the person rather than the idea
Non Sequitur
an inference that does not follow logically from the premise (literally, does not follow)
Logical Fallacy
a mistake in reasoning
A Priori Reasoning
a conclusion that can be arrived at without any observations of the world, but relies only on logical connections between ideas
Enumeration
a numbered list