Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (61)
what type of drug is used to increase or decrease the force of contraction?
what type of drug is used to increase or decrease the heart rate (rate of contraction)?
what type of drug is used to increase or decrease the conduction of electrical impulses?
what are the three categories of positive inotropic drugs presented in class?
cardiac glycosides, catecholamines, inodilator
what are digitalis drugs derived from?
natural sources (foxglove plants)
what are the effects of cardiac glycosides?
increase the strength of contractions, decrease heart rate, antiarrhythmic, decrease signs of dyspnea
what are the side effects of cardiac glycosides?
anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, cardiac arrhythmias
why must blood levels of cardiac glycosides be closely monitored?
narrow therapeutic ranges, easy for toxicity to occur
give an example of cardiac glycoside
name the catecholamine drugs
epinephrine, dopamine, doputamine
what sympathetic receptors do the catecholamines affect?
alpha and beta
what are the different concentrations of epinephrine?
1:1000 and 1:10,000
what is the major use of epinephrine?
cardiac resuscitation, anaphylaxis
what are the routes of administration for epinephrine?
intracardiac, intratracheal, IV
what two drugs discussed in class are given as a constant rate infusion?
what type of monitoring is needed for dopamine and dobutamine?
what are the effects of dopamine
increases heart contractility, increases hr, increases bp
what is the action of an inodilator?
vasodilator (aterial and venous)
give an example of an inodilator
what side effects might be seen when using pimobendan?
anorexia, lethargy, diarrhea
what are the effects of antiarrhythmic drugs?
decrease automaticity, alter rate of electrical impulse conduction, alter the refractory period of the heart muscle between consecutive contractions
what are the actions of local anesthetic antiarrhythmias?
suppress myocardial excitability, prolong the refractory period (slows hr), decrease automaticity, increase conduction times
what is an example of a local anesthetic antiarrhythmic drug?
what are the uses of procainamide?
premature ventricular contractions (PCV), ventricular tachycardia, some atrial tachycardias
what side effects can be seen with the use of procainamide?
anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, hypotension
what is the action of a membrane stabilizer?
stabilize myocardial cell membranes, prevent depolarization, depress myocardial excitability (decrease cell automaticity)
what is an example of a membrane stabilizer?
what are the uses of lidocaine?
ventricular tachycardia, PVCs
what species has a sensitivity to lidocaine?
what are the actions of beta blockers?
decrease cardiac conduction by reducing automaticity, reduce cardiac output, decrease blood pressure, decrease myocardial oxygen demand
name two beta blockers
in general, what are the side effects of beta blockers
bradycardia, hypotension, lethargy, depression
which beta blocker is used most commonly for cardiomyopathy in cats?
name two calcium channel blockers
what is the function of calcium muscle cells?
block channels that allow calcium to enter myocardial cell
what are the actions of calcium channel blockers
depress contractile mechanism in myocardial and smooth muscle cells, inhibit cardiac conduction system, depress automaticity
what can happen to an animal with CHF when placed on calcium channel blockers?
worsening because the heart is not working as hard to pump blood resulting in blood backing up into veins
what is the action of a vasodilator?
improves cardiac output by decreases afterload by dilating arteries and decreases preload by increasing blood holding capacity in dilated veins
what types of vasodilators are available?
ACE inhibitors, venodilators
how do ACE inhibitors work?
prevent conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II
what are ACE inhibitors used to treat?
congestive heart failure, hypertension
what are some examples of ACE inhibitors?
enalapril, benazepril, Lisinopril, captopril
what side effects can be seen with the use of ACE inhibitors?
hypotension, azotemia, hyperkalemia, GI
what is the action of a venodilator?
reduces preload, improves cardiac output, reduced pulmonary edema
name a venodilator
how is nitroglycerin applied to the animal?
gel to inside of ear pinna or transdermal patch
can nitroglycerin be readily absorbed through the skin?
what are the take home instructions to the client about the use of nitroglycerin?
wear gloves, rotate application sites, do not allow patient to lick or chew patch
what are the side effect of nitroglycerin?
rashes and irritation at site of application, hypotension
what do diuretics do?
increase the volume of urine excreted by the kidneys: decrease fluid retention/volume, reduce bp, decreases stress on heart by decreasing preload
when are diuretics used?
pulmonary edema, ascites, hypertension
which diuretics may need to have potassium supplemented?
loop diuretics, thiazide
what are two thiazide diuretics?
how do thiazide diuretics work?
inhibit sodium and chloride reabsorption from distal convoluted tubule of nephron
how do loop diuretics work?
inhibit reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the loop of henle as well as several other electrolytes resulting in heavy diuresis
when using diuretics, what should patients have free access to?
after administration of furosemide, how soon will you see an effect?
what side effects can be seen when using a loop diuretic?
hypokalemia, hyponatremia, ototoxicity, GI
what is a potassium sparing drug?
inhibits aldosterone, inhibiting sodium reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule, does not cause as much diuresis as thiazide and loop diuretics
what is an example of a potassium sparing drug?
what is a side effect of spironolactone?
Sets found in the same folder
autonomic nervous system drugs
GI tract disease
Sets with similar terms
Pharmacology exam 2
VTI Pharmacology 1 Cardiovascular drugs
Other sets by this creator
lab 9 post lab contemplation
lab 11 CPR