What is aversion therapy?
getting users to associate drugs with unpleasant sensations, such as nausea
Pride survey indicated what change in drug activity?
no change in drug activity over the previous school year.
What is a problem of school based adolescent drug surveys?
the likelihood that the most drug-dependent portion of the adolescent population is omitted from the sample.
Prior to the creation of juvenile court how were juvenile law violators treated?
in the same way as adult criminal offenders. Like children in England, when convicted of crimes they received harsh sentences similar to those imposed on adults
What was the house of refuge?
A care facility developed by the child savers to protect potential criminal youths by taking them off the street and providing a family-like enviornment.
What type of labor was performed by juveniles housed in the house of refuge?
piecework or community service
What were childrens legal rights like during the period of the child savers?
the basic legal rights of children were violated: children were simply not granted the same constitutional protections as adults.
Brace and the childrens aid society devised the placing out plan which did what?
sent children to western farms where they could be cared for and find a home.
In adult courts its called sentencing or adjudication hearing, what theat called in juvenile courts?
What is the benefit of using the comprehensive strategy?
*Increased prevention of delinquency (and thus fewer young people entering the juvenile justice system)
*Enhanced responsiveness from the juvenile justice system
*Greater accountability on the part of youths•
*Decreased costs of juvenile corrections•
*A more responsible juvenile justice system•
*More effective juvenile justice programs•
*Fewer delinquents becoming serious, violent, and chronic offenders•
*Fewer delinquents becoming adult offenders•
What was the watch system?
Replaced the pledge system in England; watchmen patrolled urban areas at night to provide protection from harm.
What percentage of all juvenile arrests are handled informally within the police department or community service agency?
Know the 4th amendment
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no
warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oaths or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Know the case of Peope vs. Lara
court said that the question of a child's waiver is to be determined by the totality of the circumstances doctrine.33 This means that the validity of the waiver rests not only on the age of the child, but also on a combination of other factors, including the child's education, the child's knowledge of the charge, whether the child was allowed to consult with family or friends, and the method of interrogation.
Recognize the 9 variables that are important in the police discretionary process.
*The attitude of the complainant•
*The type and seriousness of the offense•
*The race, sex, and age of the offender•
*The attitude of the offender•
*The offender's prior contacts with the police•
*The perceived willingness of the parents to assist in solving the problem (in the case of a child)
*The setting or location in which the incident occurs•
*Whether the offender denies the actions or insists on a court hearing (in the case of a child)
*The likelihood that a child can be served by an agency in the community•
What is true regarding gender and police treatment? (status offenses)
police are less likely to process females for delinquent acts and that they discriminate against them by arresting them for status offenses.
Females who have committed minor or status offenses seem to be referred to juvenile court more often than males.
What is the basic community policing model?
based on the premise that the police can carry out their duties more effectively if they gain the trust and assistance of concerned citizens. Under this model, the main police role should be to increase feelings of community safety and encourage area residents to coop-
erate with their local police agencies.