Contains digestive enzymes to break down materials (janitor).
Membrane enclosed sac that contains material (food vacuole and contractile vacuole) (storage).
Power house of the cell (respiration) (energy).
Prepares and packages material for storage and secretion (packaging).
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Interconnecting channels that transport and store substances. Rough ER-ribosomes, Smooth ER-no ribosomes (hallways).
Aides or helps in cell division (animal cells).
Contains chlorophyll; photosynthesis. (sun makes sugar, uses sun energy to make glucose) (plant cells).
Provides structure and support for cell (plant cell).
Atomic Order (smallest to largest)
Atom, Compound, Organelle, Cells, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism.
The theory that states 1) cells come from pre-existing cells, 2) cells are the basic unit of structure and function.
The diffusion of H2O. Osmosis is the process which water goes through a membrane so the cell can maintain water balance (equillibrium).
Movement from high concentration to low concentration (no energy).
Movement from low concentration to high concentration (energy).
The process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid; a 3-carbon compound.
The process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Respiration requiring oxygen.
Respiration that does not require oxygen.
Process that releases energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen.
Contains genetic information about an organism.
Structures containing large amounts of DNA.
The fusion of egg and sperm nuclei.
Fertilization outside the female body (usually in water). Animals: fish, amphibians, aquatic invertabres.
Fertilization inside the female body. Is an adaptation for land. Needs a penis and vagina or cloaca(birds) for sex organs.
(Mitosis) Division of the early stages of an embryo.
Fraternal: 2 eggs released and fertilized separatly.
Identical: One fertilized egg splits into two separate parts during cleavage.
Hollow ball of cells, folds in to become the gastrula.
Embryo develops inside the female.
The placenta is an organ that gives food and oxygen to the embryo in the uterus.
No placenta, the egg contains more yolk than placental mammals, the offspring are born premature and climb up to a pouch where they nurse on milk.
Development of the egg outside of the body. Land animals have a shell on the egg so they do not dry out.
After 9 weeks the embryo is called a fetus.
When sound waves are used to create a picture of the fetus.
The removal of fluid from the amniotic sac (by needle) to test for genetic disorders.
Blood vessels from the embryo an mother make up the placenta. Nutrients, wastes, and gases diffuse across the blood vessels (blood does not mix). Drugs, alcohoal, and harmful chemicals can also pass through the placenta.
Cord attaching fetus to placenta.
Concluding state of pregnancy.
When the uterus muscles contract to push the baby out.
Mucus that blocks the cervix is discharged.
Dilates to allow the baby to exit uterus.
Amnion breaks, and fluid is discharged.
When the placenta is discharged after the baby is born.