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148 terms

Biology: Living Environment Regents Review

A years worth of Biology vocabulary.
STUDY
PLAY
Accuracy in Science
Required so experiments can be repeated by others. If an experiment is repeatable it's validity can be tested.
Hypothesis
Educated guess based on observations
Variable
Factor that changes
Independent Variable
Variable being tested
Dependent Variable
Data you collect
Experimental Group
Group being tested
Control Group
Group not being tested(used to compare)
Constant
Factors that remain the same
Trails
The more trials that occur, the more accurate the data
Conclusion
Statement based on results. You never prove or disprove a hypothesis
Graphing
You use graphs to show trends in data. It is a picture of the data.
Metric System
A universal system of measurement based on 10's
Units of the Metric System
meter, kilometer, centimeter-length
liter, mililiter-volume
grams, kilograms-weight
celcius, kelvin-temperature
Volume
Amount of space of an object. For liquid use a graduated cylinder in liters and mililiters. Measure at the bottom of the meniscus.
Mass
The amount of matter an object has. You use the triple beam balance and measure in grams and kilograms.
Density
How much weight there is in an area. D=mass/volume. Measured in grams/mililiter^3
Characteristics of all Living Things
Reproduction
Growth and Development
Exert Waste
Exert Energy
Regulation
Respiration
Nutrition
Circulation
Synthesis
Nutrition
Organisms take in materials from the environment and use them.
Transport
Materials are distributed throughout the body.
Respiration
The release of energy from food.
Excretion
The release of waste products.
Synthesis
Large molecules are built from smaller molecules.
Growth
Increase in the number and size of cells.
Regulation
Control, coordinate, and manage activities.
Reproduction
Creation of offspring(important for the species).
Metabolism
Sum of all life functions.
Element
Substance made of one type of atom.
Compound
More than one type of atom combined.
Organic Compounds
Organic compounds always have BOTH Carbon(C) and Hydrogen(H), inorganic do not.
Bonds
2 or more atoms combined by sharing or transferring electrons.
Ion
A positively or negatively charged atom.
Acid
Substance with H+(hydrogen ions). Has a pH of 0-6. Ex. Hydrochloric Acid.
Base
Substance with OH-(hydroxide ions). Has a pH of 8-14. Ex. Sodium Hydroxide.
Neutral
Substances with a pH of 7 are neutral.
Hydrion Paper
An indicator that gives a numerical pH value for a substance.
Nutrients/Indicators
Sugar-Benedicts Solution
Lipids-Paper Towel
Starch-Lugol's Iodine
Protein-Biuret Solution
Enzymes
Living proteins inside the body that help to speed up reactions.
Substrate
The chemical an enzyme breaks down/puts together. They only fit to a specific enzyme.
Active Site
Where the enzyme attaches to a substrate.
Dehydration Synthesis
Putting molecules back together by removing water.
Hydrolysis
When molecule are broken down by adding water (digestion).
Lock and Key Model
Enzymes fit with a certain substrate like a lock and key.
Induced Fit
When an enzyme molds itself to fit with a substrate.
Factors Effecting Enzyme Action
Temperature, enzyme concentration, pH balance, and substrate concentration.
Ecology
The interrelationships of an organism and the physical environment.
Niche
The functional role of a species in an ecosystem.
Autotroph
An organism that obtains energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to make organic substances.
Heterotroph
An organism that must get energy from food sources.
Herbivore
Organisms that eat only plants and algae.
Carnivore
Organisms that eat only flesh(other animals).
Omnivore
Organisms that eats both plants and meat.
Scavenger
Carnivores that feed on dead animals they find.
Preditor
The carnivores that capture and feed on prey.
Prey
Something that is being healthy.
Decomposer
An organism that breaks down dead animals and other non-living things.
Predator/Prey Populations
Fluctuate together.
Carrying Capacity
The maximum amount of organisms an area can sustain.
Limiting Factor
A factor that causes population growth to decrease.
All Ecosystems Have
Abiotic Factors
Biotic Factors
Food Webs
To Be Self-Sustaining
A source of energy
Organisms that make organic compounds
Recycling of materials
Ecological Structure
(Smallest to Largest)-Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere.
Population
All members of one species in an area.
Community
All living things together in an area.
Ecosystem
All living and non-living things together.
Biosphere
The living part of Earth.
Biodiversity
A variety of living organisms in an area.
Symbiosis
Organisms evolve to have a relationship (good or bad).
Mutualism
When both organisms benefit.
Commensalism
One organism benefits and the other is unaffected.
Parasitism
Only one organism benefits.
Food Chain
Shows a transfer of energy from green plants to organisms that feed off each other.
Food Web
Shows a complex interactions of many food chains in an ecosystem.
Biogeochemical Cycle
The process in which elements and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another.
Evaporation
Process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas.
Transpiration
The loss of water from a plant through it's leaves.
Nutrient
Chemical substance that an organism requires to live.
Nitrogen Fixation
The process of converting nitrogen gas into amonia.
Denitrification
Conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas.
Primary Productivity
Rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem.
Ecological Succession
Gradual changes in living communities that follow a disturbance.
Primary Succession
Succession that occurs on surfaces with no soil.
Pioneer Species
The first species to populate an area.
Secondary Succession
Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil.
Classification
Biologists classify organisms to arrange them in a clear organized manner.
5 Kingdom Order
Plantae, Animalia, Protista, Fungi, and Monera.
Prokaryote
First cell. No nuclear membrane (Monera).
Eukaryote
True cell. Has nuclear membrane
(all other kingdoms).
Binomial Nomenclature
We refer to organisms by two words; genus+species. Universal naming system.
Species
Members can only mate with members of the same species.
Cell Membrane
Membrane surrounding the cell controlling what enters/exits the cell (security).
Cytoplasm
Fiber-like substance that supports organelles (building).
Nucleus
Control center of the cell (stores genetic info) (boss).
Nuclear Membrane
Allows substances to enter/exit the nucleus (office).
Ribosome
Synthesize (build) proteins (machines).
Nucleolus
Synthesize ribosomes (matinence). Nucleolus builds ribosomes, ribosomes builds proteins.
Lysosome
Contains digestive enzymes to break down materials (janitor).
Vacuole
Membrane enclosed sac that contains material (food vacuole and contractile vacuole) (storage).
Mitochondria
Power house of the cell (respiration) (energy).
Golgi Complex
Prepares and packages material for storage and secretion (packaging).
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Interconnecting channels that transport and store substances. Rough ER-ribosomes, Smooth ER-no ribosomes (hallways).
Centriole
Aides or helps in cell division (animal cells).
Chloroplast
Contains chlorophyll; photosynthesis. (sun makes sugar, uses sun energy to make glucose) (plant cells).
Cell Wall
Provides structure and support for cell (plant cell).
Atomic Order (smallest to largest)
Atom, Compound, Organelle, Cells, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism.
Cell Theory
The theory that states 1) cells come from pre-existing cells, 2) cells are the basic unit of structure and function.
Osmosis
The diffusion of H2O. Osmosis is the process which water goes through a membrane so the cell can maintain water balance (equillibrium).
Passive Transport
Movement from high concentration to low concentration (no energy).
Active Transport
Movement from low concentration to high concentration (energy).
Glycolysis
The process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid; a 3-carbon compound.
Cellular Respiration
The process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Aerobic Respiration
Respiration requiring oxygen.
Anaerobic Respiration
Respiration that does not require oxygen.
Fermentation
Process that releases energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen.
DNA
Contains genetic information about an organism.
Chromosome
Structures containing large amounts of DNA.
Fertilization
The fusion of egg and sperm nuclei.
External Fertilization
Fertilization outside the female body (usually in water).
Animals: fish, amphibians, aquatic invertabres.
Internal Fertilization
Fertilization inside the female body. Is an adaptation for land. Needs a penis and vagina or cloaca(birds) for sex organs.
Zygote
Fertilized egg.
Cleavage
(Mitosis) Division of the early stages of an embryo.
Twins
Fraternal: 2 eggs released and fertilized separatly.

Identical: One fertilized egg splits into two separate parts during cleavage.
Differentiation
Cells specialize.
Blastula
Hollow ball of cells, folds in to become the gastrula.
Internal Development
Embryo develops inside the female.
Placental Mammals
The placenta is an organ that gives food and oxygen to the embryo in the uterus.
Marsupials
No placenta, the egg contains more yolk than placental mammals, the offspring are born premature and climb up to a pouch where they nurse on milk.
External Development
Development of the egg outside of the body. Land animals have a shell on the egg so they do not dry out.
Fetus
After 9 weeks the embryo is called a fetus.
Ultrasound
When sound waves are used to create a picture of the fetus.
Amniocentisis
The removal of fluid from the amniotic sac (by needle) to test for genetic disorders.
Placenta
Blood vessels from the embryo an mother make up the placenta. Nutrients, wastes, and gases diffuse across the blood vessels (blood does not mix). Drugs, alcohoal, and harmful chemicals can also pass through the placenta.
Umbilical Cord
Cord attaching fetus to placenta.
Labor
Concluding state of pregnancy.
Contractions
When the uterus muscles contract to push the baby out.
Mucus Plug
Mucus that blocks the cervix is discharged.
Cervix
Dilates to allow the baby to exit uterus.
"Water Breaks"
Amnion breaks, and fluid is discharged.
"After Birth"
When the placenta is discharged after the baby is born.
Meiosis to Differentiation
Meiosis, Fertilization, Mitosis (cleavage), Morula, Blastula, Differentiation (gastrula).
Plasmid
Tiny loop of DNA.
Recombant DNA
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources.
Restriction Enzyme
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides.
Fossil
Direct or indirect remains of organisms.
Direct Fossil
Bones, feces, organisms, teeth, shells.
Indirect Fossil
Imprints, footprints.
Where are fossils found?
Sedimentry Rock
Amber
Ice
Tar
Petrification
Relative Dating
Comparison of rock layers to show when species existed, in relation.
Absolute Dating
Radioactive Dating-Look at the decay of radioactive materials (1/2 life) to determine the age of rocks and fossils.