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Intro to Islam

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Jahiliyyah
"Age of Ignorance"; The age before Islam, very individualistic, NO UNITY; very great divide between rich and poor; mostly 6th century
Quraysh
Dominant tribe in the Arabian peninsula; took advantage of pilgrims coming to Mecca and got rich by controlling trade around the Ka'ba
570 CE
Year of the Elephant; Mohammed is born (maybe not, according to Aslan)
Abu Talib
Member of the Quraysh; Mohammed's uncle; took care of Mohammed after his parents died and taught him how to be a caravan trader
Hakam
Means "mediator" in Arabic; used to resolve disputes; Mohammed was one
610 CE
Mohammed receives first revelation on Mt. Hira
Nabi
Means "prophet" in Arabic; there were 124,000 prophets; Mohammed was the last
Rasul
Means "messenger" in Arabic; there were 4 messengers; Mohammed was the last.
Mecca
One holy city for Muslims; where the Quraysh lived; where the Ka'ba is; where Mohammed grew up
619 CE
Year of Sorrow; Abu Talib and Khadija die, and Abu Lahab takes over the clan
Taqiyyah
Renouncing your faith if you have to (e.g. in the face of death); seen in the story of Ammar who renounced his faith while being tortured
Hijra
The migration of Muslims from Mecca to Yathrib (soon-to-be Medina) in 622 CE; marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar; years after this are marked AH
622 CE
First year of Islamic calander (1 AH, After Hijra); year Mohammed and his followers left Mecca to go to Yathrib/Medina
Ummah
Means "community" in Arabic; Muslims refer to themselves as this; represents unity because all Muslims are part of the ummah; composed of Muhajirun and Ansaris
Muhajirun
Members of the Ummah who traveled with Mohammed on the Hijra from Mecca to Medina
Ansari
"helpers"; members of the Ummah already living in Medina who helped Mohammed and his group after they arrived
Zakat
An almsgiving tax imposed on Muslims; if you are too poor to pay it then you receive it; one of the two requirements for conversion to Islam; 2.5% of income
Shahada
The profession of faith said in order to convert to Islam; "There is no god but God and Mohammed is his messenger"
Jizya
Tax paid by non-Muslims in order to be included in the ummah
Constitution of Medina
Drafted in 622 (Aslan questions this); declaration of the ideals of Islamic life; it was broad, but is often considered the world's first constitution; its main goal was to establish and maintain peace between the people of the ummah
Battle of Badr
Occurs in 624; the ummah is planning a caravan raid, but the Quraysh are warned and stage a battle against the Muslims; 300 fighters for Ummah, 1000 for Quraysh; Muslims win and prophet is seen as brilliant military strategist
Battle of Uhud
Occurs in 625; Quraysh and ummah fight at ___; 1000 for ummah, 3000 for Quraysh; Some Muslims expect victory, lose discipline, and go after booty, causing the Quraysh to win
Battle of the Trench
Occurs in 627; 3000 for ummah, 10,000 for Quraysh; Ummah digs a moat around the city; battle ends in a draw, but that basically makes it an Ummah win
Treaty of Hudabiyyah
treaty signed by the Ummah and Quraysh which allows Muslims to perform the hajj every year (except the current one), allows people to convert freely
628 CE
Year that Mohammed marched with 1500 people toward Mecca to perform the hajj and march around the Ka'ba;
630 CE
Year Quraysh break Treaty of Hudabiyyah; Mohammed brings the Ummah to Mecca with a force of 10,000 and the Meccans automatically surrender, and the Prophet takes the city
Ka'ba
A structure in Mecca that housed idols of all the gods worshipped during the Jahiliyyah; after the ummah defeats the Quraysh in war, Mohammed destroys all the idols and rededicates the Ka'ba to the one god
632 CE
Year in which Mohammed dies, gives Farewell Sermon on Mt. Arafat
Khadija
Mohammed's first wife and the first convert to Islam; married when he was 25 and she was 40 (year: 595 CE)
Aisha
Mohammed's third wife; daughter of Abu Bakr, Mohammed's close companion; married around 623 CE
Sunnah
The prophet's example (literally means "traditions"); people looked to the sunnah to answer questions about their lives
Hadith
The written record of the sayings and actions of the prophet; collected centuries after his death; codified version of the sunnah; there are 6 of them and they vary in legitimacy
Rashidun
The period of the 4 caliphs succeeding Mohammed (Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali); 632-661 CE; means "The Rightly Guided Ones"
The Golden Age of Islam
The Prophetic Era + the Rashidun; Muslims were on the straight path; great expansion of Islam
Shura
Means "consultation" in Arabic; small group of Ummah and Quraysh used to determine who would be the caliph
Abu Bakr
First caliph after the death of Mohammed; rules 632-634; close friend and companion of the prophet who exemplified Islamic ideals; chose to be called Caliph (means "representative"); Fourth convert to Islam
Bay'ah
An oath of allegiance and acceptance of a leader; Abu Bakr asks for this from the ummah when he is chosen as caliph
Umar
Second caliph; succeeds Abu Bakr; rules 634-644; close companion of the prophet; chose to be called "Commander of the Faithful" as well as Caliph
Uthman
Third caliph; succeeds Umar; rules 644-656; known for his nepotism, which made him unpopular; chose the title "Successor to God," which the previous 2 had rejected; created the first written Quran
Fitnah
Loosely translated as "civil war"; this is what occurs after the assassination of Uthman; opposite of unity and oneness
Ali
Fourth caliph; succeeds Uthman; rules 656-661; son-in-law and cousin of Mohammed; Second Convert to Islam; chose the title "Commander of the Faithful"; supported by the Kharijites; opposed by Aisha and the Ummayyads (including Muawiyyah)
Kharijites
First Muslim extremists; believe in a literal application of the Qur'an; believe that the most pious person should rule
Ummayyad
The clan from which Uthman hails; takes power after the Rashidun; Muawiyyah is from this clan
Battle of the Camel
Battle that Ali fights against Aisha in 656; Aisha rides a camel into battle; Ali wins
Battle of Siffin
Battle that Ali fights against Muawiyyah in 657; Ali is about to win, but Muawiyyah tells his men to put Qur'ans on the ends of the spears, signalling a desire for arbitration; a neutral hakam sides with Muawiyyah
Shi'ism
"Partisans of Ali"; minority sect of Islam (10-15% currently); head of the Muslim community should and must be a descendent of the prophet through the line of Ali and Fatima
Fatima
The daughter of the prophet; married Ali and had two sons: Husayn and Hasan
Mawla
Can mean "master" or "friend" in Arabic; at Ghadir Khumm, Mohammed said, "Whoever recognizes me as their _____ should recognize Ali as their _____"; the discrepancy in meaning can represent the disagreement between Sunnis and Shi'as
Ghadir Khumm
Place where Shi'a say Mohammed named Ali his successor
March of the Penitents
Occurs in 684; followers of Husayn go back to Karbala; spontaneous display of emotionalism, including grieving, crying, and self-flagellation; every year thereafter, they recreate the story of the Battle of Karbala, culminating in Ashura, the 10th day
Ashura
Means "tenth" in Arabic; the 10th day of the first month in the Islamic calendar; the day on which Husayn was killed; a day of grieving and remembrance in Shi'a Islam
Rafidis
Means "rejectors of the truth" in Arabic; Shi'a Muslims were known as this by Sunnis
Imam
The leader in Shi'a Islam; a perfect and flawless human being; incapable of committing sins; known as god's executor on earth; acts as a mediator between believer and god; Ali was the first imam and there are 12 total
Twelvers (Ithna Asharis)
Shi'a Muslims who believe that there are 12 imams; most common type
Twelfth Imam
Went missing as a child; named Mohammed; Shi'a Muslims believe he went into hiding in 874 and is now ever-present; believed that he never died; believed that he will return at the end of times as the Mahdi (Messiah) and will usher in a period of justice
Zayadis (Fivers)
Shi'a Muslims who believe that there are 5 imams
Ismailis (Seveners)
Shi'a Muslims who believe that there are 7 imams
Dhimmis
People of the book aka Jews/Christians; protected under Islamic law; also came to include other religions later, including Zoroastrians, Hindus, and Buddhists
Islam
Means "submission" in Arabic
Muslim
One who submits
Allah
Arabic word for god; is described using 99 names or terms; two most popular are "compassionate" and "merciful"
Qur'an
Means "recitation" in Arabic; meant to be recited, not read; considered the literal word of god
Baraka
"Spiritual aura"; to be in the presence of the Qur'an is to be in the presence of ______
Surah
A chapter in the Qur'an; there are 114 _____
Ayat
A verse in the Qur'an; there are 6000 ____
Basmallah
Every chapter in the Qur'an (excluding one) begins with this; "In the name of God, most compassionate, most merciful"; also used throughout Muslim life, at meetings, at political events, etc.
Fatiha
Means "The Opening" in Arabic; first chapter of the Qur'an; start of the 5 prayers each day; said 17 times throughout each day during prayer
Doctrine of Inimitability
Means that the Qur'an cannot be imitated in any way; the Qur'an is perfect in every way; means that there can be no translation of the Qur'an
Mother of the Books
The idea that there is a heavenly template of the Qur'an that exists with god; every Qur'an on earth is therefore a replica of this template
Tawhid
The core of Islamic theology; unity/oneness of god
Shirk
The opposite of tawhid; associating anything with god, including idols. Also putting other things before God.
Taqwa
"God consciousness"; being in a state of remembrance of tawhid; staying on the straight path keeps you in a state of taqwa
Rationalists (Mutazilites)
Believe that reason is the supreme guide; believe in historical context of the Qur'an; believe that the Qur'an was created
Traditionalists (Asharites)
Believe that there is no need to historically contextualize the Qur'an; don't ask why the Qur'an and sunnah don't make sense in some cases; Qur'an is uncreated
Ulama
Religious scholars whose job it is to define Islam; establish 5 schools of Islam, 4 Sunni and 1 Shi'a
Hanifs
believers in the Abrahamic God, just not through Judaism or Christianity
Henotheism
Belief in one God, but with many lesser deities as well
First Revelation
Gabriel appeared to the Prophet on one of his meditations in the mountains and told him either "read" or "recite" three times; "recite" is the one commonly believed among Muslims, because it is believed the Prophet was illiterate
Themes of Revelation
Social Justice: everyone is equal and should be taken care of equally; Unity: unity of God, unity of mankind, most important theme; Staying on the Straight Path: strive for egalitarianism or burn in hell
Zaed
former slave and adopted son of Mohammed; third convert to Islam
ghazu
legal caravan raids; had to be sneaky and couldn't use violence
Kharijites
extremists; believe in literal interpretation of the Quran; believe most pious man should lead Ummah
Founding Events of Shi'aism
1. Betrayal and Martyrdom of Ali; 2. Betrayal and Martyrdom of Husayn
political quietism
Shi'a don't get involved in politics, because all rulers are unjust except for the Hidden Iman
Occulation
Twelfth Iman went into hiding to protect himself, and will come back just before the endtimes
Doctrine of Abagation
Whichever revelation came last is the one God wants Muslims to follow; latest revelation time-wise, not by place in Quran
Dhikr
remembering Allah through the heart
Sufism
"wool"; mystical aspect of Islam; follow God through direct connection with him; very inclusive, open to any religion
Tariqa
path followed by Sufis; all have direct experience of divine and opening your heart to the divine in common; each path is led by a Shayk
Salat
Islamic prayers that must be said 5 times per day; most purify by washing hands and feet, while others believe it to be symbolic; need something to keep you off the ground
Ramadan
month of fasting; breakfast is meager but dinner is very big; done to feel the plight of the poor, reminder of social justice
Muezzin
person who calls everyone to prayer
Eid
Islamic holiday; five per year
Eid al-Fite
last day of Ramadan; Muslim Christmas
Hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca every Muslim should take in their lifetime; all men must dress the same, but women may wear what they want; much celebrating, reenactments of important events in Muslim history
Ihram
Hajj garment for men; two pieces of white seamless cloth; garment the prophet wore; garment they will wear when they die
Eid al-Adha
last day of Hajj, celebrates Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son, Ishmael
Silsila
chain of transmission from Shayk to Shayk; Mohammed was the first; connection between people who have achieved Fana
ijtihad
"independent reasoning"; preferred reasoning of Sufis; done through experience not through traditional reasoning
Sufi Shahadah
"There is no being but the being of god; there is no reality but the reality of god"
Fitra
perfect purity of babies; Sufis believe we need to try and return to it
Ruh
"breath" or "soul"; breath of God which animated humanity; longs to be reunited with God
Nats
ego; gets in the way of the Ruh in getting back to God
Qalb
heart; Ruh and Nats are in constant battle over this
Fana
Nirvana-like state
Sibha
99 beads strung together; used in Sufi prayers; represent 99 names of God
Wali
"friend of God"; another term for Shayks; they can emit Baraka
Shayk
leader of a Sufi Tariqa; followers are said to be in love with them; must be followed very strictly; must have achieved Fana to reach this point
Sufi Quest
struggle between the Ruh and the Nats over the Qalb; if all goes well, in leads to Fana
Determining issues in Islam
1. What the Quran says; 2. What the Sunnah says; 3. What the Ulama have said; 4. What the dissenting Ulama have said; 5. What history can tell us
Treatment of Women in Quran
Should have legal rights (dowry, divorce, marriage, court, etc.), men and women have the same obligations; women should have financial independence
Mothers of the Believers
wives of Mohammed
Modesty Verse
verse in the Quran which establishes modesty for men and women; both should avert their eyes and protect their modesty; women should guard their zinat as well, only showing it to their family
Zinat
that which gives you beauty; adornments/ornaments
Khumar
shawl/cloak; should be drawn across chest to preserve modesty
Jilbab Verse
women should wear a Jilbab (outer covering) to stop them from being accosted
Clothing Verse
clothing prevents shame, protects against evil, promotes (modest) beauty
Hijab Verse
only for Mothers of the Believers; male guests should only ask MotBs questions from behind a Hijab (barrier)
Purity Verse
only for Mothers of the Believers; Prophet's wives should be pure, unlike Jahiliyah women; signifies difference between MotBs and other women
Creation Account
Adam and Eve sin together and then ask for forgiveness, unlike in the bible where Eve goes first and they blame others
650 CE
First written, codified version of the Quran; all others are destroyed