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forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint that stretches or tears its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones. it occurs when the ligaments are stressed beyond their normal capacity. sprains may also damage surrounding blood vessels, muscles, tendons, or nerves. ankle joint most commonly sprained.

cartilage injury

such as tearing of articular discs in the knee, damaged cartilage will begin to wear and may cause arthritis to develop unless the cartilage is surgically removed. surgical repair neccesary.


occurs when bones in ajoint become displaced or misaligned it is often caused by a sudden impact to the joint. the ligaments always become damaged as a result of a dislocation. shoulders, fingers, knees, wrists, elbows.

inflammatory and degenerative

bursitis, arthritis.


acute or chronic inflammation of a bursa. caused by irritation from repeated, excessive exertion of a joint. may occur by trauma, or infection or rheumatoid arthritis. pain swelling, tenderness, limited mov.


is any painful disorder of the supporting structures of the body-bones, ligaments, tendons, or muscles- that is not caused by infection or injury


is a form of rheumatism in which the joints are swollen, stiff and painful.

lyme disease

acute arthritis (sudden onset). bacteria are transmitted to humans mainly by deer ticks. low synovial fluid. pain, swelling, joint stiffness, advance stages arthritis is the main complication. cured with antibiotics

chronic arthritis

osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gouty arthritis


degenerative joint disease in which joint cartilage is gradually lost. due to aging, obesity, irritation of joints. most common type of arthritis. low blood flood to joints, low synovial fluid. thinning of articular cartilage. high pain, stiffness. irritation of bone. bone growth at joint. treated with antiinflammatories attacks larger joins first. wear and tear..

rheumatoid arthritis

autoimmune disease. immune system destroys synovial joints. rapid collapse of synovial cavity. low synovial fluid. thin articular cartilage, bone growth across joint. loss of function. painful and desfigurating.

gouty arthritis

episodic comes and goes. high uric acid in the blood (protein metabolism). uric acid deposits in the joints as sharp crystals. pain and swelling.

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