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56 terms

Russian Revolution/rise of dicts/ ww2

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Czar Nicholas II
Russian Czar during WWI; unpopular with Russian people; overthrown in March 1917; executed by Bolsheviks after November Revolution (1917)
Rasputin
Russian peasant monk who was able to influence Russian politics by gaining the confidence of the Czarina
Vladimir Lenin
Leader of the left-wing socialists (Bolsheviks) who wanted to take control of Russia. Moved the capital to Moscow., Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
Bolsheviks
Radical Marxist political party. Under Lenin's leadership, seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
cheka
The re-established tsarist secret police, which hunted down and executed thousands of real or suspected foes, sowing fear and silencing opposition.
Leon Trotsky
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Federal system of socialist republics established in 1923 in various ethnic regions of Russia; firmly controlled by Communist party; diminished nationalities protest under Bolsheviks; dissolved 1991.
Soviet Union
A Communist nation, consisting of Russia and 14 other states, that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Military Oligarchy
high competition and low participation. all decisions are made by elite behind closed doors, don't need support because they can use force.
Hirohito
emperor of Japan who renounced his divinity and became a constitutional monarch after Japan surrendered at the end of World War II (1901-1989)
Tojo
Japanese army officer who initiated the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and who assumed dictatorial control of Japan during World War II
Expansionism
a policy of expanding a country's economy or territory
Violations of Treaty of Versailles
Hitler invaded Poland and others, put soldiers in DMZ
Third Reich
The Third German Empire, established by Adolf Hitler in the 1930s.
Weimer Republic
Germany lacked a strong democratic tradition, so postwar Germany had several major political parties and many minor ones. The country's defeat and postwar humiliation was blamed on the Weimar government not their wartime leaders.
Communism
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
Fascism
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
Nazism
Adolf Hitler used fascism to create this type of government based on totalitarian ideas and was used to unite Germany during the 1930s.
Totalitarianism
is a concept used to describe political systems whereby a state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life. These regimes or movements maintain themselves in political power by means of an official all-embracing ideology and propaganda disseminated through the state.
Fiver Year Plan
Emphasized maximum production of capital goods (plan); collectivization
Collectivization
system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.
Kulaks
Prosperous Russian Peasents that - under Stalin - were sent to Labor Camps as punishment for being succesful
Heavy Industry
the manufacture of machinery and equipment needed for factories and mines
Great Purge
The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
Franco
Spanish general who led the fascist forces in the Spanish Civil War and became dictator of Spain in 1939.
Guernica
a Spanish town that was brutally bombed and was full of innocent civilians it was supposed to encourage fear, Picasso painted a famous painting capturing Guernica
Spanish Civil War
General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
Hirohito
(1901-1989) Emperor of Japan from 1926 until 1989. He is the last Japanese emperor to be considered divine. Led Japan through World War II.
Tojo
Japanese army officer who initiated the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and who assumed dictatorial control of Japan during World War II
Expansion of Japan
Who: Japan What: Japanese tried to imperialize local neighbors. Where: Japan/ Korea are WC: Japan's empire grew to great lengths and became feared.
Mein Kampf
'My Struggle' by hitler, later became the basic book of nazi goals and ideology, reflected obsession
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Appeasement
practice of giving in to an aggressor nation's demands in order to keep peace
Neville Chamberlin
British prime minister; signed the Munich Agreement to turn Sudetenland over to Germany
Allied Powers
Great Britain, France, Russia, and later the US
Axis Powers
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
Nazi-Soviet Pact
Hitler and Joseph Stalin agreed not to attack each other but divided Poland for an easy win, but Germany didn't keep true to their word and attacked Stalin later
Invasion of Poland
Germany invaded, breaking their agreement, so Britain and France declared war, starting World War II
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Battle of Britain
the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it
Scorched Earth Policy
the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land
Stalingrad
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union.
Reds
The Bolsheviks, favored a Socialist state. The appealed to nationalism and favored expelling foreigners from Russia.
Whites
What the SRs, Mensheviks, Czarists, and anti-communist foreign nations were known as in the civil war from 1918-1921.
US Entry into WWii
US stops trading with Japan, Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, US Declares War on Japan, Germany Declares War on US
Midway
An important battle in the Asian part of the war, the Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers; island hopping
Island Hopping
stragety of Allies in World War 2 of capturing some Japanese-held islands and going around others
El Alamein
Combined German and Italian forces were beaten near Alexandria, which lead to the Allied taking of Morocco and Algeria
D-Day
Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
V-E Day
Victory in Europe Day on May 8th, 1945 celebrated the official defeat of the Nazis and end of WWII in Europe.
Okinawa
Showed that the Japanese would "fight to the death",was the scene of the last great U.S. amphibious campaign in World War II. U.S. army and marine forces
Iwo Jima
imported naval battle in the Pacific; strategic position need by US to allow the bombing of Tokyo; more casualities than D-day but Americans won the island
Hiroshima
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Nagasaki
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
V-J Day
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945.