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Czar Nicholas II

Russian Czar during WWI; unpopular with Russian people; overthrown in March 1917; executed by Bolsheviks after November Revolution (1917)


Russian peasant monk who was able to influence Russian politics by gaining the confidence of the Czarina

Vladimir Lenin

Leader of the left-wing socialists (Bolsheviks) who wanted to take control of Russia. Moved the capital to Moscow., Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)


Radical Marxist political party. Under Lenin's leadership, seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.


The re-established tsarist secret police, which hunted down and executed thousands of real or suspected foes, sowing fear and silencing opposition.

Leon Trotsky

Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Federal system of socialist republics established in 1923 in various ethnic regions of Russia; firmly controlled by Communist party; diminished nationalities protest under Bolsheviks; dissolved 1991.

Soviet Union

A Communist nation, consisting of Russia and 14 other states, that existed from 1922 to 1991.

Military Oligarchy

high competition and low participation. all decisions are made by elite behind closed doors, don't need support because they can use force.


emperor of Japan who renounced his divinity and became a constitutional monarch after Japan surrendered at the end of World War II (1901-1989)


Japanese army officer who initiated the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and who assumed dictatorial control of Japan during World War II


a policy of expanding a country's economy or territory

Violations of Treaty of Versailles

Hitler invaded Poland and others, put soldiers in DMZ

Third Reich

The Third German Empire, established by Adolf Hitler in the 1930s.

Weimer Republic

Germany lacked a strong democratic tradition, so postwar Germany had several major political parties and many minor ones. The country's defeat and postwar humiliation was blamed on the Weimar government not their wartime leaders.


a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.


a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition


Adolf Hitler used fascism to create this type of government based on totalitarian ideas and was used to unite Germany during the 1930s.


is a concept used to describe political systems whereby a state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life. These regimes or movements maintain themselves in political power by means of an official all-embracing ideology and propaganda disseminated through the state.

Fiver Year Plan

Emphasized maximum production of capital goods (plan); collectivization


system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.


Prosperous Russian Peasents that - under Stalin - were sent to Labor Camps as punishment for being succesful

Heavy Industry

the manufacture of machinery and equipment needed for factories and mines

Great Purge

The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.


Spanish general who led the fascist forces in the Spanish Civil War and became dictator of Spain in 1939.


a Spanish town that was brutally bombed and was full of innocent civilians it was supposed to encourage fear, Picasso painted a famous painting capturing Guernica

Spanish Civil War

General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.


(1901-1989) Emperor of Japan from 1926 until 1989. He is the last Japanese emperor to be considered divine. Led Japan through World War II.


Japanese army officer who initiated the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and who assumed dictatorial control of Japan during World War II

Expansion of Japan

Who: Japan What: Japanese tried to imperialize local neighbors. Where: Japan/ Korea are WC: Japan's empire grew to great lengths and became feared.

Mein Kampf

'My Struggle' by hitler, later became the basic book of nazi goals and ideology, reflected obsession

Treaty of Versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans


practice of giving in to an aggressor nation's demands in order to keep peace

Neville Chamberlin

British prime minister; signed the Munich Agreement to turn Sudetenland over to Germany

Allied Powers

Great Britain, France, Russia, and later the US

Axis Powers

Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.

Nazi-Soviet Pact

Hitler and Joseph Stalin agreed not to attack each other but divided Poland for an easy win, but Germany didn't keep true to their word and attacked Stalin later

Invasion of Poland

Germany invaded, breaking their agreement, so Britain and France declared war, starting World War II

Winston Churchill

A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.

Battle of Britain

the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it

Scorched Earth Policy

the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land


City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union.


The Bolsheviks, favored a Socialist state. The appealed to nationalism and favored expelling foreigners from Russia.


What the SRs, Mensheviks, Czarists, and anti-communist foreign nations were known as in the civil war from 1918-1921.

US Entry into WWii

US stops trading with Japan, Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, US Declares War on Japan, Germany Declares War on US


An important battle in the Asian part of the war, the Americans sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers; island hopping

Island Hopping

stragety of Allies in World War 2 of capturing some Japanese-held islands and going around others

El Alamein

Combined German and Italian forces were beaten near Alexandria, which lead to the Allied taking of Morocco and Algeria


Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

V-E Day

Victory in Europe Day on May 8th, 1945 celebrated the official defeat of the Nazis and end of WWII in Europe.


Showed that the Japanese would "fight to the death",was the scene of the last great U.S. amphibious campaign in World War II. U.S. army and marine forces

Iwo Jima

imported naval battle in the Pacific; strategic position need by US to allow the bombing of Tokyo; more casualities than D-day but Americans won the island


City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.


Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).

V-J Day

"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945.

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