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Policies regarding Native Americans (1860-80)

- reservations
- Native Americans depended on US (for food, clothes, etc)
- assimilation (Christianity, English, school, men farm, etc)
- civilize them
- make them white

Government's response to big business of the late 1800s

- pools --> business consolidation
- trusts --> monopolies
- Sherman Anti-Trust Act --> no trusts (not effective)
- Laissez-faire

Holden v. Hardy

- court upheld law to limit miner working hours
- dangerous job

Lochner v. New York

- court struck down law limiting bakers' hours
- not a dangerous job

Muller v. Oregon

- court limited working hours for women working in laundry shop
- dangerous to reproductive health
- result --> limit jobs that women can have

Seventeenth Amendment

- direct election of senators
- previously elected by state legislature
- party bosses are still able to control elections

Eighteenth Amendment

- prohibition
- women's movement started it (keep morals in society)

New Nationalism

- Teddy Roosevelt
- government should regulate economic activity
- won't destroy big business

New Freedom

- Wilson
- concentrated
- break up monopolies but don't restore laissez-faire
- enhance government authority to protect and regulate

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

- created Federal Trade Commission (investigate companies for unfair trade practices)
- prevent corporate abuses by expanding government's regulatory powers
- corrected problems with Sherman Anti-Trust Act
- outlawed monopolies

Dollar Diplomacy

- use of private funds to serve US economic goals
- gained profit for US finances
- tie money to whatever you want done

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

- Latin American countries need to stabilize policies and finances
- if they continued to be bad, US would have to intervene
- US is the superior and civilized nation
- Monroe --> tells Europe to stay out of US stuff

Espionage and Sedition Acts

- don't say anything against the draft, the government, or the military
- banned treasonous mail
- no spying

Schenck v US

- upheld Espionage Act
- courts sided with a law that was unconstitutional

Abrams v US

- upheld Sedition Act
- courts sided with a law that was unconstitutional

Wilson's Fourteen Points

- diplomacy, freedom of the seas, lower tariffs, reductions in armaments, decolonization, evacuate troops from Europe, self-determinate
*League of Nations

Paris Peace Conference

- Versailles
- Big 4 (not 5 yet)
- Germany will pay reparations for WWI
- blame Germany for war

League of Nations

- 5 member nations
- elected delegates from smaller countries
- Wilson

Treaty of Versailles

- didn't mention some of Wilson's 14 Points
- lots of people in the US didn't like it
- Lodge Reservations --> don't want League of Nations because Europe could interfere in US affairs

National Origins Act

- apportioned new quotas for European countries
- a set amount from each country could immigrate
- limit immigration from southern and eastern Europe

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

- designed to make loans to banks, insurance companies and railroads
- lent lots of money to people at the top of the system (trickle down)
- didn't work

Hawtley-Smoot Tariff

- raised duties by 1/3
- weakened economy more (rather than reversing the recession)
- made it harder for other countries to sell products and earn money to pay back debts to US and buy from US)

Economics of Scarcity

- combat depression
- restore purchasing power to farmers, blue-collar workers, and middle class
- cut production (prices would rise)
- producers would make more profit and workers would earn more

Tennessee Valley Authority

- economy > environment
- dams would control food and generate hydroelectric power
- enhance economy
- caused pollution, but achieved goals

Social Security Act

- force Americans to save money
- workers who paid Social Security taxes would get retirement benefits at age 65
- created some welfare programs

Dawes Plan of 1924

- reduced Germany's annual war payments
- provided more loans to Germany
- German debt was eventually cut in half

Good Neighbor Policy

- US would be less blatant in its dominion of Latin America
- economic control, not military
- nicer domination

Policy of Appeasement

- overlook Hitler's small crimes
- allow him to take smaller territories

The Munich Conference

- Hitler took Austria and Czechoslovakia
- Britain and France let Hitler get away with it
- thought Hitler was done taking countries

Stimson Doctrine

- response to Japanese in Manchuria
- moral lecture (we can't do anything else)
- US wouldn't recognize any impairment in China's sovereignty or Open Door

The Europe First Formula

- beat Germany, then go to Japan
- don't want Britain to lose war
- US is worried about Germans making the atomic bomb
- if Germany won the war, US would be threatened more

Teheran Conference

- Stalin, Churchill, and FDR met to reconcile (we left Soviets out of Italian surrender)
- FDR finally said he'd start the second front
- decided on Operation Overlord (for D-Day)

The Manhattan Project

- secret program for atomic bomb
- test bomb in New Mexico desert

Hirabayashi and Korematsu Cases

- upheld Japanese internment policies

Executive Order No. 8802

- required employers in defense industries to make jobs available without discrimination

Dumbarton Oaks Conference

- US, Britain, Chinese, and Soviet representative
- supreme security council
- 5 permanent members (France is the 5th)

Yalta Conference

- Britain wanted to make France a partner in postwar occupation of Germany
- Soviets want Germany to pay for the war
- US wanted UN
- US agrees with Britain, but we need Soviets to help us in the Pacific

Potsdam Conference

- new German policies
- complete disarmament
- dismantle industry used for military
- no more Nazism
- war crimes trials

Taft-Hartley Act

- unpopular with workers
- no closed shop
- union workers had to swear they weren't communists
- Congress approved it over Truman's veto

Dynamic Conservatism

- Eisenhower
- conservative in money and liberal with people

Highway Act of 1956

- Eisenhower
- national defense
- approved funds for interstate highway system
- facilitate commerce and enable military to move around US more easily

Brown v Board of Education of Topeka

- separate but equal is not equal
- integrate
- didn't call for integration until second Brown v Board
- integrate with all deliberate speed

Truman Doctrine

- support free peoples who are resisting subjugation

Mr. X Article

- anticommunism speech
- containment

Containment Doctrine

- contain communism

Marshall Plan

- achieve US goals in Europe
- foreign aid to Europe
- money given must be spent on American-made products
- keep countries stable so they'll stay trading partners
- caused inflation and didn't solve the problem

Eisenhower Doctrine

- US would interne in Middle East if any government threatened by a communist takeover asked for help

New Frontier

- end racial discrimination
- medical care for elderly
- stop recession

Great Society

- Johnson
- war on poverty
- civil rights
- accomplish JFK's goals

Civil Rights Act of 1964

- no discrimination on color, race, religion, sex, or national origin
- applied to public accommodations and employment
- government could withhold funds from public agencies that discriminated

Principle of Flexible Response

- policy for Soviet Union and 3rd World Countries
- US would respond with whatever means necessary in a given situation

Strategic Hamlet Program

- isolate peasants from Vietcong (southern rebels)
- put them in compounds
- alienated villagers
- meant to avoid killing our allies

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

- president can take all necessary measures to rebel armed attacks against US and prevent further aggression

Nixon Doctrine

- US would help nations that helped themselves
- build up Vietnamese forces to replace US forces


- first part of Nixon-Kissinger Grand Strategy
- negotiate with Soviets
- check Soviet expansion
- limit Soviet arms buildup

Carter Doctrine

- The US would intervene unilaterally and militarily) should Soviet aggression threaten the Persian Gulf


- cut domestic programs (food stamps, welfare, school meals, etc)
- tax cuts for corporations
-widened class gap
- supply-side--> give business more money so they'll invest in business (creates jobs for lower class)

The Scopes Trial

- it's illegal to teach evolution in schools (fundamentalism)
- teacher volunteered to serve in a test case
- arrested for violating law and convicted
- modernists claimed victory (trial showed flaws in fundamentalism)

Twenty-First Amendment

- repealed prohibition

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