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Accelerated Jacoby

Define gamete

specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction

Define mitosis

part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides

Define meiosis

process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the seperation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell

Define diploid

term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes

Define crossing over

process in which homolgous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis

Define haploid

term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes

Define cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm during cell division

Define tetrad

structure containing 4 chromosomes that forms during meiosis

Define chromatid

one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosomes

The nuclear membrane breaks down...


Sister chromatids move apart...


Chromosomes line up along the center of the cell...


Two new nuclear membranes from...


Cytoplasm pinches in half...


The cell grows...


List the 4 phases in the cell cycle

G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, M phase

Gametes are produced in...


The symbol (n) stands for _________ and 2(n) stands for _________.

haploid, diploid

During mitosis, the number of cells created are...


The number of gametes made in males are _________. In females are _________. (functional)

4 sperm, 1 egg

List the 4 phases of mitosis

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

How many cell divisions are there during mitosis?


How many cell divisions are there during meiosis?


Humans have _________ number of chromosomes in every body cell and _________ number of chromosomes in the sex cells.

46, 23

Chromosomes move to opposite poles during anaphase by the assistance of there fibers _________.

spindle fibers

If the gametes of an organism contain six chromosomes, the normal body cells must _________ chromosomes.


Define the principle of dominance

some alleles are dominant and some are recessive

Define the principle of probability

can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses

Define homozygous

refers to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait

Define heterozygous

refers to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait

Define the principle of segregation

separation of alleles during gamete formation

Define the principle of indpendent assortment

independent segregations of genes during the formation of gametes

Define incomplete dominance

situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another (ex. pink)

Define linked genes

any pair of genes that tend to be transmitted together

Define gene

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

True or False: Mendel's principles of genetics apply only to plants.


True or False: Linked gened are on the same chromosome.


True or False: Polygenic inheritance means one allele for a gene is not completely dominant over another allele for that gene.


True or False: The farther apart two genes are location on a chromosomes, the more likely that are to be linked.


True or False: Two genes are on the same chromosome and rarely assort independently, are probably located close to each other.


Describe the process of Evolution by natural selection.

trait in an animal that gives that animal a better chance of survival

Describe the practice known as artificial selection. Provide 3 examples.

natural provides variation and humans pick
ex. horse, cat, dog, plant

Summarize Lamarck's theory of aquired traits?

inheritance of acquired traits

How would one diprove Lamarck's theory of acquired traits?

cut of 2 rats' tails and leave them to reproduce

What is an adaption?

inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance for survival

Define fitness

ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in a specific enviornment

How does a desirable adaption allow an individual to exhibit a high level of fitness in the theory of Evolution by Natural Selection?

with adaptions and natural selection the organism has a higher chance of survival

Describe the results obtained in the pepper moth lab.

light moths are more visible in dark locations and dark moths are more visible in light locations

What is a vestigial structure, give examples?

organ that serves no useful function in an organism
ex. apendix, tail bone

What is a homologous structure, give an example?

structures that have different mature forms
ex. wigs

Explain why Sustainable Development practices are important.

its a way of using natural resources without depleting them, takes in account both the functioning of ecosystems and the ways that human economic systems operate

Compare and contrast Renewable and Nonrenewable resources.

renewable - replenishable by Earth
nonrenewable - not replenishable by Earth

Compare Global Warming and The Greenhouse Effect.

global warming - increase in average temperature of biosphere
greenhouse effect - heat is retained by green house gas

What is the greatest threat to biodiversity?


Describe Biological Magnification.

increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher trophic levels in a fodd chain or food web

List the seven levels of classification:


what is the most general classification level in Linnaeus' system?


Define the term pathogen.

disease-causing agent

Describe the make up of a typical virus.

nucleic acid, protein, and sometimes lipids

What are the two types of autotrophs? Describe how these organisms are able to synthesize food molecules.

plant and bacteria
photosynthesis and chemosynthesis

List the 5 types of heterotrophs and describe their mode of nutrition.

herbivor - plant
carnivor - meat
omnivor - plant and meat
detritivor - dead matter
decomposer - break down organic matter

List the levels of organization from the individual organism to the Biosphere.

individual - population - community - ecosystem - biome - biosphere

Define the term trphic level.

each step in a food chain/web

Distinguish between primary, secondary, and third level consumers and provide an example of each.

primary - herbivore - mouse
secondary - carnivore - snake
third level - carnivore - owl

How do the biomass, population of numbers, energy relate to a pyramid?

biomass - grams of organic matter per unit area
numbers - amount of food for a top consumer
energy - 10% passed on

Identify the levels of consumers and producers in an enery pyramid? Provide and example of this food chain.

producer - first level - ex. plant
consumer - everything above first level - snake/ bunny

Define the 10% Rule.

10% of energy is given of to the next organism while the 90% is lost as heat between trophic levels

Compare the flow of energy and matter in an ecosystem.

flow of energy - one-direction, matter is recycled, decreases ex. energy
flow of matter - not recycled byt multiplies, ex. DDT

Compare Nitrogen fixation and denitrification. Which organisms play a key role in there 2 processes?

fixation - convert nitrogen gas to ammonia
denitrification - convert nitrates to nitrogen gas

Define population density and provide an example.

number of individuals per unit area
ex. 100 canadian guess per 1 mile

Compare the logistic and exponential groth curves.

logistic - when population's growth slows or stops folled by exponential growth
exponential - individuals in population reproduce at a constant rate

Distinguish between Density Dependent, Density Independent,and Limiting Factors. Provide 2 example of each.

dependent - depends on population size, ex. predation and disease
independent - affect all populations in similar way, regardless of size, ex. natural disasters and seasonal cycles
limiting factors - foctor causing population growth to decrease, ex. competition and drought

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