sequence of the four major groups of plants in the fossil record, from most ancestral to most recent
bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms
The following evolutionary adaptations contributed to the ability of bryophytes to colonize land
A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary. Ex. Oak Tree
meiosis in an ovule results in a
spore that develops into a female gametophyte which produces and egg
Which of the following correctly defines alternation of generations
life stages that cycle between haploid and diploid phases
Reproduction of plants differs from reproduction of animals in that
plants have a distinct, multicellular haploid phase
Gingko biloba, a common urban shade tree, is a gymnosperm with a life cycle that is like that of the pine. Which of the following would be haploid?
In angiosperms, pollination is the transfer of pollen grain to the _____ of a flower on the same plant or another plant of the same species.
Which combination of traits would you expect in the female and male flowers of a wind-pollinated plant?
emale: drab with large sticky stigmas; male: drab with many large anthers
Yeasts reproduce asexually through _____, and molds reproduce asexually through _____.
budding ... spores
Which of the following represents a case of an opportunistic fungal pathogen?
A common mold called Aspergillus can cause severe respiratory and systemic infections in people with HIV.
Many people see some fungi as dangerous pathogens or destroyers of crops and food. Which of the following claims concerning the beneficial nature of fungi is true?
Healthy plants and forests could not be sustained without mycorrhizal fungi and fungal decomposition.
Which correctly pairs a challenge to living on land with the relevant plant adaptation
water loss ... cuticle
Ferns have vascular tissue, an adaptation to life on land, but they have an ancestral reproductive trait that tends to limit them to moist habitats. What is it
Pine trees and other gymnosperms have _____ but not _____, which is/are present only in angiosperms
seeds ... fruit
Four Challenges of Living on Land
1. Maintaining moisture
2. Obtaining resources
3.Being able to support itself
vascular plants include
seedless plants (ferns, club mosses)
seed forming plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms)
Have well-developed roots and rigid stems, which means they can grow much taller than mosses.
Are most diverse in tropical regions. Have flagellated sperm, and so need water to swim to the egg for fertilization (just like mosses).
Gymno means naked; sperm means seed. These seeds are not enclosed within a fruit, but lie "naked" on the scales of cones.
are an important adaptation for life on land. They can lie dormant for years until conditions are favorable for germination.
Gymnosperms include all
conifers (evergreens) such as pines, spruces, firs, and hemlocks, as well as cycads and ginkgoes
All reproductive stages of a conifer are housed in a cone! example Redwood Blue spruce Cedar
Seed Plants: Angiosperms
The most successful (and most colorful!) type of plants on earth. Includes all flowering plants. All have a dominant sporophyte generation - the plant itself.The flower houses the gametophytes.
Angiosperm Reproduction 2
Ovules inside the ovary contain spores which develop into female gametophytes to produce the eggs
Angiosperm Reproduction 3
Pollen grains from the anthers can land on the stigma and grow a pollen tube down to the ovule, where a sperm can fertilize the egg, producing a zygote
Angiosperm Reproduction 4
Pollination occurs when pollen sticks to the stigma, either blown there by the wind or delivered by an animal pollinator.
Angiosperm Reproduction 5
A pollen tube grows toward the ovule in the ovary, carrying 2 sperm cells that were held in the pollen grain.
Angiosperm Reproduction 8
The other sperm joins with other cells in the ovule to produce the endosperm, a source of stored food for the embryo.
Why make fruits?
Plants go to all the trouble of making fruits in order to be sure their kids leave home! seeds must be dispersed away from the parent plant so there is less competition for resources like water, soil minerals, and light.
Fungi are actually heterotrophic organisms, but they don't "eat" or ingest their food like animals do. Instead...
they secrete enzymes to digest their food outside their bodies and then absorb the small nutrient molecules into their cells!
Many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass; comprises the bodies of multicellular fungi
Fungi can reproduce either asexually
When food and moisture are plentiful, fungi reproduce asexually, producing haploid spores.
When conditions become unfavorable, most fungi can reproduce sexually. The nuclei of adjoining hyphae fuse to form diploid zygotes, which undergo meiosis to form durable haploid spores.
These are the only fungi with flagellated spores and are common on lakes, ponds, and soil.
Some are decomposers, while others are parasitic on protists, plants, and animals.
These fungi include fast-growing molds such as black bread mold and molds that rot fruits and vegetables. Many of the preservatives added to prepared foods discourage growth of these fungi.
This diverse group of "sac fungi" produce spores in saclike structures called asci.
They include unicellular yeasts, morels and cup fungi
These fungi produce spores at the ends of club-like structures called basidia. This is the most familiar fungal group, and includes mushrooms, puffballs, and the shelf fungi that grow on rotting logs.