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chapter 9 - Earthquakes
Terms in this set (39)
A smaller earthquake that follows the main earthquake.
A subdivision of the mantle situated below the lithosphere. This zone of weak material exists below a depth of about 100 kilometers (60 miles) and in some regions extends as deep as 700 kilometers (430 miles). The rock within this zone is easily deformed.
A seismic wave that travels through Earth's interior.
The zone of greatest seismic activity.
The innermost layer of Earth. It is thought to be largely an iron-nickel alloy, with minor amounts of oxygen, silicon, and sulfur.
The very thin, outermost layer of Earth.
Vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy.
The sudden release of stored strain in rocks that results in movement along a fault.
The location on Earth's surface that lies directly above the focus.
A zone of weakness in the Earth between two crustal blocks.
Gradual displacement along fault. Such activity occurs relatively smoothly and with little noticeable seismic activity.
The place within Earth where earthquake waves originate.
Small earthquakes that often precede a major earthquake.
See Focus (earthquake).
A property by which objects at rest tend to remain at rest, and objects in motion tend to stay in motion unless either is acted upon by an outside force.
The solid innermost layer of Earth, about 1216 kilometers (754 miles) in radius.
A measure of the degree of earthquake shaking at a given locale, based on the amount of damage.
The transformation of a stable soil into a fluid that is often unable to support buildings or other structures.
The rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and upper mantle.
An estimate of the total amount of energy released during an earthquake, based on seismic records.
One of Earth's compositional layers. The solid rocky shell that extends from the base of the crust to a depth of 2900 kilometers (1800 miles).
The plate boundary separating a subducting slab of oceanic lithosphere and the overlying plate.
Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale
A 12-point scale developed to evaluate earthquake intensity, based on the amount of damage to various structures.
A more precise measure of earthquake magnitude than the Richter scale that is derived from the amount of displacement that occurs along a fault zone.
A layer beneath the mantle about 2270 kilometers (1410 miles) thick, which has the properties of a liquid.
Primary (P) waves
A type of seismic wave that involves alternating compression and expansion of the material through which it passes.
A scale of earthquake magnitude based on the amplitude of the largest seismic wave.
Secondary (S) waves
A seismic wave at involves oscillation perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
A segment of an active fault zone that has not experienced a major earthquake over a span when most other segments have. Such segments are probable sites for future major earthquakes.
Seismic sea waves
A rapidly moving ocean wave, generated by earthquake activity, that is capable of inflicting heavy damage in coastal regions.
Large earthquakes release huge amounts of stored up energy as a form of energy that travels through the lithosphere and Earth's interior.
An instrument that records earthquake waves.
A record made by a seismograph.
The study of earthquakes and seismic waves.
Strike slip fault
A fault along which movement occurs horizontally.
Seismic waves that travel along the outer layer of Earth.
A low-angle reverse fault.
A major strike-slip fault that cuts through the lithosphere and accommodates motion between two plates.
The Japanese word for a seismic sea wave.
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