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the curve at a liquid's surface by which you measure the volume of the liquid


the ability of a microscope or telescope to measure the angular separation of images that are close together


the increase of an object's apparent size

fine adjustment

Sharpens the image under high magnification.


having cells with 'good' or membrane-bound nuclei


describes a cell that does not have a nucleus or anyother membrane-covered organelles; also called bacteria.

Biologically important molecules

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids

dehydration reaction

A chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule


a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water.

Benedict's test

Test for reducing sugars. Sample is heated to 80ºC with reagent. If a reducing sugar is present, the reagent changes from blue to red precipitate.

iodine test

a test for amylose that forms a blue-black color after iodine is added to the sample

biuret test

for proteins; initially blue, mix with proteins will cause a change to violet.

positive control

an experiment whose result is already known to be positive, it is used to check that nothing went wrong during the procedure.

negative control

an experiment done with a sample/mock sample that should normally yield a negative result. It allows to check for contamination of the reagents or artifacts that would give false positive.


the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration


the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

Brownian movement

the random motion of small particles suspended in a gas or liquid


A phenomenon that occurs in plants in an hypertonic solution. The cell loses water and shrivels, and its plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall, usually killing the cell.


one of a series of rounded projections (or the notches between them) formed by curves along an edge (as the edge of a leaf or piece of cloth or the margin of a shell or a shriveled red blood cell observed in a hypertonic solution etc.)


lysis of erythrocytes with the release of hemoglobin


Molecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions.

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