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39 terms

Ch. 3 Second Language Acquisition

STUDY
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tense
a binary system that consists of present or past
aspect
a binary system that classifies actions as perfective(complete) or imperfective(incomplete)
coordination
the joining of two or more elements of the same linguistic value by means of a coordinating conjunction
subordination
the insertion or embedding of one independent clause into another independent clause by means of a subordinating conjunction
displacement
speakers can use language to talk about entities or events that are not actually present in the environment; distinguishes humans from animals
case system
way grammar functions in a sentence
inflection
grammatical suffix
phonology
branch of linguistics that studies significant sounds of a language systematically and scientifically
morphology
branch of linguistics that studies the structural changes in words (prefixes, suffixes, infixes, etc)
syntax
the branch of linguistics that studies sentence formation and word order
semantics
the branch of linguistics that studies words and sentence meanings and implications of utterances
phonology
branch of linguistics that studies significant sounds of a language systematically and scientifically
phoneme
any significant sound of a language/the idealization of a sound
allophone
true articulation of the phoneme; the way the sound really sounds in relation to its phonetic environment
point of articulation assimilation
the presence of one sound influences the articulation of a neighboring sound
elision
the omission of a sound in a word that would otherwise be present if the word were pronounced clearly and distinctly
liaison
the joining of words across word boundaries
morpheme
the smallest significant unit of meaning in a word that combines with other smaller significant units to create more complex words
allomorphes
two or more morphemes that have the same abstract meaning but are not interchangeable
complementary distribution
the idea that allomorphes are not interchangeable
minimal pair
two or more linguistic units that are exactly alike in all but one feature
free morphemes
independent morphemes that do not need other morphemes to appear and can stand alone
bound morphemes
dependent morphemes that never represent complete words and have to affix themselves to other morphemes in order to appear
inflectional morphemes
always suffixes that communicate grammatical information
derivational morphemes
can be prefixes and suffixes and they communicate semantic or lexical information
bull's tripartile system of verbal analysis
william bull in 1965 discovered the three segments of verb conjugation, lexical/semantic info, tense mood and aspect, person and number
semantics
the branch of linguistics that deals with the description of word and sentence meaning
derivation
the joining of afixes to create new words
coinage
the invention of new words as a result of new technology
blending
the mixing or joining of two words
apocope
shortening/clipping of words
error by analogy
making irregular forms regular
syntax
the branch of linguistics that deals with sentence structure and word order
sentence diagram
pictorial representation of the grammatical structure of a sentence in a natural language
linguistics
the study of language development, structure, sound and meaning
descriptive linguistics
describes how a language is used
prescriptive linguistics
prescribes the rules of language and how language should be used
diachronic linguistics
study of language change over time
synchronic linguistics
study of language at one particular slice in time