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Arts and Humanities
Texas ESL Certification Suppliment Test 154
Terms in this set (15)
5 Main ELL Programs that use the student's native language while learning English...
Transitional Bilingual - uses native language in core academic subjects. English only instruction is phased in as quickly as possible.
Developmental Bilingual - uses native language in core academic subjects throughout elementary. May extend to middle/high school.
Two-Way Immersion onstudents are from similar backgrounds with q/e the class speaking native langage and other half speaking both. Instruction is evenly split between English and native language (DUAL LANGUAGE)
Support Only Role - Native language is used as support only with bilingual para available to translate vocabulary, explain lessons and clarify confusing assignments.
Newcommer - reserved for recent immegrants. Instruction is in native language and students are also helped to acclimate to the new environment.
Context-Embedded vs Context-Reduced Communication
Context-embedded communication - uses visuals and vocal props to help student understand what is said. Picture and other objects graphically explain and demonstrate. Gestures are used and so is tone of voice.
Context-reduced communication - has no visual cues so the student must rely on competency and fluency to understand (phone conversations)
Methods to teach ESL
Grammar-based - teaches the rules: structure, function and vocabulary. Emphasis in on the why and how.
Communication-based - teaches how to use English in everyday, realistic situations. Emphasis on practical conversational useage.
Content-based - teaches grammar and vocabulary. Uses written assignments to practice. Emphasizes and integrated approach to learning English.
Continuum of Learning Theory
Outlines predictable steps when learning a new language. Teachers will encounter these general levels of mastery:
Silent/recpetive or PREPRODUCTION - lasts few hours to 6 months. Std usually doesn't say much and communicates using pictures, gestures or pointing.
EARLY PRODUCTION - Std uses one and two word phrases. They indicate understanding with yes/no and who/what/where questions. Lasts up to 6 months.
SPEECH EMERGENCE - Last up to 1 year. Students use short sentences and begint o ask simple quetions. Grammatical errors make communication challenging.
INTERMEDIATE LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY - Std begin to make complex statements, share thoughts and opinions and speak more often. May last 1 year or more.
ADVANCE LEARNING PROFICIENCY - Lasts 5 - 7 years. Students have acquired a substatial vocabulary and are capapble of participating in activities and discussions.
4 Key Pricipals of Language Aquisition for ELL
4 key concepts in mainstream classrooms to help ELL acquire proficiency in both writing and speaking...
Increase comprehensibility - use pictures, props, gestures and voice variations to explain or demonstrate a subject.
Encourage Interaction - ask questions and assign group activities. Provide ELL lots of opportunity to practice to increase confidence.
Increase thinking and study skills - ask thought provoking questions, assign complex topics for research. Expect hight standards from every studnet.
Use native language - helps increase comprehension and understanding. Clarifies instructions and helps std understand what is expected.
Factors to determine reading skills of an ELL
Accurately assess stds cultural identity. Heritage and personal history have an impact on the stds readiness to learn.
ability to read and comprehend the written word accurately and quickly
Content based language instruction
combines information, hands on tasks, and instructional techniques and uses these tools to develop language skills and learn subject matter. Teacher uses English and native language to explain and evaluate stds verbal, written and group efforts.
used in immersion and bilingual programs and helps with limited or non-existent English proficiency. Content is taught in native language and then moved to instruction in english.
Language across the curriculum
Content based teaching that deliberately coordinates English language instruction in all classes no matter what the subject.
understanding depends on external context - grammar, idioms, contextual information, infrances
Canale & Swain
Communicative Competence consists of both organizational competence (grammar & discourse) and pragmatic competence (socialinguistic & speech acts)
reading, writing, listening, phonetics
Language Acquisition vs Language Learning
Language Acquisition - develops unconsiously through us
Language Learning - requires instruction
Concrete objects used to demonstrate and aid in vocabulary and encourage discourse
L1 and L2
Employing L1 in support of L2 increases comprehensibility
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
ESL 154 EXCET Test Vocabulary
Praxis ESL Concepts
TExES ESL 154
Review Pass the Texas Exam ESL
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