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Affirmative Action

programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities

14th Amendment

Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

concurrent powers

powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments

implied powers

Those delegated powers of the National Government that are suggested by the expressed powers set out in the Constitution; those "necessary and proper" to carry out the expressed powers

enumerated powers

The powers explicitly given to Congress in the Constitution.

inherent powers

The powers of the national government in foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government

Civil Rights Act of 1964

This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.

Establishment clause

the First Amendment guarantee that the government will not create and support an official state church

Free exercise clause

the First Amendment guarantee that citizens may freely engage in the religious activities of their choice

Roe vs. Wade decision

the Court ruled that a right to privacy under the due process clause in the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution extends to a woman's decision to have an abortion (during the first trimester)

Plessy vs. Ferguson decision

the 1896 case in which the U.S. supreme court upheld segregation by enunciating he seperate-but-equal doctrine.

De jure segregation

Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.

de facto segregation

segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law

gag orders

legal restrictions prohibiting the press from releasing preliminary information that might prejudice jury selection

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.

supremacy clause

The constitutional provision that makes the Constitution and federal laws superior to all conflicting state and local laws.

mcculloch vs maryland

The state of Maryland taxed banknotes produced by the Bank of the United States, claiming that the Bank was unconstitutional. Using implied powers, Marshall countered that the Bank was constitutional and ruled that Maryland was forbidden from taxing the Bank.

Bills of attainder

a law that punishes a person accused of a crime without a trial or a fair hearing in court

Expost facto laws

a person can't be charged for an action that wasn't illegal at the time but became illegal at a later date

Prior restraint

government censorship of information before it is published or broadcast

Right to privacy

the right to a private personal life free from the intrusion of government

Separate-but-equal doctrine

the doctrine established by Plessy v Ferguson (1896) that African Americans could constitutionally be kept in separate but equal facilities

Brown vs. Board of Education

1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

dual federalism

A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.

cooperative federalism

system in which both federal government and state governments cooperate in solving problems

new federalism

a policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)

contemporary federalism

mixture of cooperation and conflict. competitive because states and federal gov compete for leadership of national domestic policy

new new federalism

Clinton delegating rule implementation to state agencies, but insisting on the right of federal agencies to set national standards.

state centered federalism

one of several perspectives on federalism, which argues that the constitution and the federal government are creations of the state and therefore can be overruled by the states.

Block grant

broad grant with few strings attached; given to states by the federal government for specified activities, such as secondary education or health services

regressive taxation

A system of taxation in which tax is levied at a decreasing average rate as income rises. This form of taxation takes a greater proportion of tax from the low-income taxpayer than from the high-income taxpayer.

texas reggressive because ?


Why do we have such low voting turnout?

Voter registration

federal madates

A federal law or act compelling State to take certain actions sometimes without providing funding, such as No Child Left Behind- - that's called an un-funded mandate

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