KIN 143 Midterm
Terms in this set (93)
do you: participate in everyday activities without feeling undue fatigue? become exhausted from unexpected, demanding physical exertion? "Fit for what?!"
components, physical fitness
Cardiorespiratory (aerobic) endurance
performance related components can impact health, but are generally more specialized. However, example of elderly given exercise of repeatedly getting up and down is a specialized performance components which impacts health.
Movements which have am everyday application. eg. squat/press - lifting. marathon runners upper body fitness very low - not functional for everyday use, etc.
General physical skills (10)
2. cardiovascular/respiratory endurance
5. Stamina (muscular endurance)
10. Power (max force, min time)
Cardiovascular Disease (part - metabolic syndrome: elevated blood pressure, obesity, elevated blood fat, resistance to insulin) Chronic disease (from lifestyle components rather than infection) biggest killers in N. America.
The activity of natural killer cells is reduced after periods of intense exercise, increasing chances of infection during recovery.
Specific (what, where when etc)
Acceptable (feel good about doing it?)
Realistic (money, current fitness etc)
Timely (set short and long-term goals)
Physical activity Vs Exercise
Physical Activity—Any activity above resting levels, such as going for a walk or gardening.
Exercise—A subset of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, such as swimming for 30 minutes three times per week.
Physiologic conditioning (principles)
Overload principle - adapting to stress, super-compensation.
Specificity principle - adapting to type of training
Reversibility principle - adapting to training reduction (use it or lose it)
Individual differences principle - limits to adaptability
F is for frequency or "How often?"
I is for intensity or "How hard?" (60-90% age-predicted max)
T is for time or "How long?"
T is for type or "Which activities?"
Heart rate reserve (HRR)
Maximal heart rate = 220 - 22 = 198 bpm
Maximal heart rate minus resting heart rate = 198 - 60 = 138 bpm
Lower level of target heart rate range
Resting heart rate plus 50% of HRR = 60 + (0.50´ x 138) = 129 bpm
Upper level of target heart rate range
Resting heart rate plus 85% of HRR = 60 + (0.85´ x 138) = 177 bpm
Target heart rate range = 129 - 177 bpm
10-second target heart rate ˜ 22 - 30 beats
Energy Vs Power
Energy - capacity to perform work
Power - rate of change/production of energy, how quickly we perform work.
cervical flexion - neck
left - rotation right, flexion left
right - rotation left, flexion left
flex and horizontally adduct arm
shoulder abduction - when shoulder is internally rotated
shoulder flexion - when shoulder is internally rotated
shoulder transverse abduction - when shoulder externally rotated)
extend and horizontally abduct the arm
Extension and adduction at the shoulder joint.
Flexion, horizontal adduction and adduction at the shoulder joint. When the shoulder is flexed the pectoralis major will also act as an extensor.
Flexion at the elbow joint; also a weak flexor of the shoulder.
flexion of the elbow
flexion of the elbow
Extension of the elbow joint
Adduction and downward rotation of the scapula
Rectus Abdominus (abdominals)
Internal/external obliques (abdominals)
Both work together to help produce trunk flexion. The left external oblique and right internal oblique would cause rotation to the right.
Extension of the spine
Extension of the spine (two muscles)
Extension at the hip
Extension at the knee (all fur muscles). Rectus femoris - only one which crosses hip joint too, hip flexion as well as knee extension.
Flexion at the knee and extension at the hip (three muscles)
adduction of the thigh (toward midline)(five muscles)
abduction of the thigh (away from midline) (three muscles)
Dorsiflexion of ankle (toes towards knee)http://www.exrx.net/Graphics/TibialisAnterior.gif
Planter flexion at ankle (toe away from knee) and flexion at the knee - biarticulate.
Plantar flexion (toe pointing away from knee) at the ankle.
muscle that causes the motion of the exercise. So the biceps is an agonist in the biceps curl.
muscle that can move the joint opposite to the movement produced by the agonist. The triceps is the antagonist for the biceps curl.
The primary muscle intended for exercise
muscle that assists another muscle to accomplish a movement.
Resistance training terms
Repetitions - # times exercise consecutively performed
Rep Max (RM) - max number of times an exercise can be performed.
sets - number of groups of reps
intensity - amount of weight used
the end segment of the exercised limb is not fixed, or the end is not supporting the weight. knee extension is an isolated open-chain exercise, as the body is fixed and the knee extends to push a lever upwards.
the end segment of the exercised limb is fixed or the end is supporting the weight. Most compound exercises (exercises that involve two or more joint movements). back squat is a compound closed-chain exercise
Resistance training (benefits, negatives etc)
Strength of bones
Tensile strength of ligaments and tendons
Thickness of cartilage
Muscle mass (hypertrophy)
Stamina (duration of effort before exhaustion)
Flexibility (assuming full range of movement during training)
Speed and power
Blood volume and haemoglobin (with endurance/circuit training)
Muscle enzyme levels
Skill (free weight programs)
Maximal work capacity
Equalization of muscle development
Capillary density in the muscle (from muscular endurance programs only; programs that focus solely on strength may result in capillary dilution)
Stress and tension
Resting heart rate (with endurance/circuit training)
Improve cardio-respiratory function (with endurance/circuit training)
Alter metabolism to improve caloric utilization
Facilitate quicker recovery from workouts and competitions
Increase self-image and confidence
Increase feeling of well-being
Induce fatigue and relaxation (help sleep patterns)
Muscular strength, endurance, power
Strength - greatest amount of force in single maximal effort
Endurance - ability to perform repeated contractions, extended period.
power - ability to produce force quickly force X speed of contraction.
muscular contraction with no change in length of the muscle
muscular contraction where the tension (force) in the muscle is constant
a contraction where the muscle shortens or lengthens at a constant velocity
the muscle is contracting and shortening
he muscle is not only contracting but also lengthening
Bringing the limb towards the midline of the body
Moving the limb away from the body
Mitions where the joint angle gets smaller and extension causes the angle to increase.
Arm is held out to the side horizontally and is swept towards midline of the body (eg. moving the upper arm toward and across the chest).
Iliosoas (hip flexor)
deep lying muscle that has fibres running from lumbar vertebrae and iliac bone to the front of the femur. (related to back pain)
series of deep lying muscles that attach along the posterior (back) of the spine.
A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber
single motor neuro and all of the corresponding muscle fibres it innervates (causes to contract). When activated, all of its fibers contract.
muscle fibers that work a long time without fatigue (aerobic)
muscle fibers that react quickly and fatigue quickly (anaerobic)
a hemoprotein that receives oxygen from hemoglobin and stores it in the tissues until needed
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
the recruitment of motoneurons according to their size (weak contraction activates small, slow-twitch muscles, strong contraction activates larger, fast-twitch fibers)
muscles which prevent flexion of the joints under the effect of gravity. The antigravity muscles of the body are endowed with a somewhat higher muscle tone than the other muscles of the body. (eg. quadriceps, erector spinae, abdominals)
a force that causes rotation (force x perpendicular distance)
-enlarges muscle by overload stress
-An increase in the size of a tissue such as muscle
-Muscle fibres increase size by increasing in the # of their myofibrils (small parts of the muscles).
-An increase in the # of cells within a tissue, such as an increase in the # of fibres within a muscle.
any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use)
principle of arrangement of exercises
Larger muscle groups= higher priority over smaller groups.
Rationale: Smaller muscle groups will be fatigued and limit the amount of work you can do with larger muscle groups. (eg. Wrist curls before pull-ups)
Weight Training Principles
1) principle of overload
2) principle of Progressive resistance
3) Principle of arrangement of exercises
4)Principle of Specificity
The principle that either a neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs or a neuron is not sufficiently stimulated and an action potential does not occur.
Deoxygenated blood is pumped from the heart through the lungs and oxygenated blood is returned back to the heart
oxygenated blood is pumped from the heart around the rest of the body and deoxygenated blood is returned back to the heart.
Cardiac Output (Q)
the amount of blood pumped in one minute by either the right or left ventricle of the heart
Stroke Volume (SV)
amount of blood pumped by the left or right ventricle of the heart per beat.
Heart Rate (HR)
number of heart beats per minute
the large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
smallest blood vessels; materials are exchanged between the blood and the body's cells
skeletal muscle pump
This is one of the ways that we create pressure to move blood, especially from the feet back to the heart. It is of extreme importance because if we are standing up and walking, there is no other way to create this pressure and without it the blood would accumulate in the feet and our blood pressure would drop. And then so would we.
the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation (exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide) with the world of the living.
exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body
Minute ventilation (VE)
Volume of air inspired or expired in one minute
Tidal volume (Vt)
Volume of air ventilated per breath
Respiratory frequency (FR)
Number of breaths per minute
the pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels
Systolic blood pressure
pressure on artery walls when the left ventricle contracts and pushes a bolus of blood through the arteries.
Diastolic blood pressure
pressure in the arteries between ventricular contractions after the bolus of blood has passed through.
calculated as systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure. Refers to the additional pressure that is pushing blood through the system during systole (when the ventricles contract).
medical term referring to high blood pressure.
occurs when you only perform high-weight low-rep work with lots of rests between sets. There is no overload for the body to build more capillaries as it is all anaerobic.