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Process and Storage of cereal


composition of legumes

protein, phytoestrogen

explain emulsion

droplets of milk dispersed in watery milk serum

composition of meat

protein, phosphorous, vitaB6, B12, zinc, Mg, thiamin, niacin, iron

composition of vegetables

carbs,fibre, minerals, vitamins, antioxidants

what causes anaemia?

iron deficiency

1 effect of anaemia

affects brain function

what causes goitre?

iodine deficiency

what is the affect of folic acid deficiency?

megaloblastic anaemia

what leads to xerophthalmia?

vitaA deficiency

list the three types of carbohydrates

monosaccharide, disaccharides, oligosaccahrides/ploysaccharides

list three types of monosaccharides

fructose, glucose, galactose

what is a glycosidic bond?

bond between 2 monosaccharides forming a disaccharide

list three types of disaccharides

sucrose, lactose, maltose

3 functions of carbs in food

sweetner, thickner, stabilizer

list two types of fiber and a source for each

soluable fiber: oatmeal
non-soluable fiber: whole wheat bread

what are polypeptides

polymers of amino acids

list structure of amino acid

amine group, acid group, carbon atom attached to H and R

what is a peptide bond? dipeptide

form amino acids; two or more amino acids joined together

3 functions of proteins in food

color, texture, flavour

3 functions of fats in food

caloric density, essential fatty acids, flakiness

2 reasons to add organic acids to food

tartness, lower pH to preserve food

5 reasons for process efficiency in microorganisms

1. identify species and strain
2. understand growth
3. correlate growth
4. correlate safety
5. link info to ensure quality

2 ways to classify organisms

1. classic
2. molecular

3 ways how MOs contaminate foods

soil, air,surfaces

4 nutrients MO need for growth

1. carbon source
2. nitrogen source
3. vitamins
4. minerals

3 phases of microbial growth curve

lag, stationary, and death

microbial growth in food can be beneficial (1) or detrimental (2) list ways

beneficial through fermentation
detrimental through quality and safety

5 factors affecting microbial growth

type of food, processing, storage, type of microorganism, interaction

4 impacts of MO on food properties

appearance, texture, odour, flavour

define spoilage

no longer acceptable to consumer

give an example of infection


define intoxication

food acts as a growth for organism and chemical created which is bad for consumer

3 factors contributing to outbreaks

1. food contaminated with pathogen
2. foods obtained from unsafe sources
3. inadequate processing

list 3 foodborne illnesses

gastroenteritis, abortion, cancer

list the pH for stomach acids and small intestines

2-3pH and 4-5pH

what is the main cause of pathogenicity

microbial toxins

what are exotoxins and how are they produced

proteins, produced by metabolic activity

what are endotoxins and how are they produced?

lipo-polysaccharides, released when the cell dies

3 mechanisms of foodborne illnesses

1. intoxication
2. non-invasive infection ex salmonella
3. invasive infection

difference b/w non-invasive and invasive infection

non-invasive grows in small intestine
invasive grows in cells

what are factors to infective dosage

# of organisms to produce exotoxin and enable colonization

list 3 reasons to ferment food

preservation, safety, increased benefits

list 3 roles of bacteria

flavour, texture, nutritional enrichment

list 4 complex microbial associations


list 4 things preservation protects

physical damage, chemical reactions, microbial activity, contamination

list 6 ways to control growth of microorganisms

time, temperature, moisture, pH, addition of preservatives, limiting oxygen

list the normal fridge and freezing temperature

4degrees and -12degrees

list one way adding preservatives helps

to reduce browning

the most effective way to control growth of MOs

combination, 'hurdle technology'

define commercially sterile

heating all the MOs that can multiply until they are killed

2 ways to reach commercial sterilization

canning or UHT treatment

6 steps in canning

prepare ingredients,fill container, seal, heat process, cool, label

UHT plus aseptic packaging steps -4

sterilize by heating, sterilize packaging, fill under aseptic conditions, seal

list four types of filtration and which packaging style utilizes it

micro, ultra, nano and reverse osmosis
aseptic packaging

list 2 types of chemical reactions

enzyme catalyzed, non-enzymic

how can enzymes be denatured

heat, chemicals

how can enzyme reaction be retarded

refrigeration, freezing, blanching

list 5 types of physical damage

breakage, package puncture, moisture uptake, insect damage, rodent damage

define contamination

something that should not be in the food, may not be harmful

list 5 types of contamination

dirt, broken glass, metal, taints, adulteration

list 3 freezing processes

refrigerated surface, cold air, cryogenic `

why should freezing be quick

cuz slow freezing allows for bigger crystals to form and allows dehydration

list 2 things about freezer burn

causes off flavour, woody appearance

freezing is the combination of what two things

reduced temperature
removal of water as ice

list the steps in freezing peas

harvest, quality check, washed, blanched, chilled, tested, de-watered, quick freeze, packed, distributed

difference between wet food and dry food

wet food: MOs grow, enzyme reactions
dry food: MOs dont grow, chemical reactions

what are the two categories of water chemistry?

dilute solutions- water activity
concentrated solutions- molecular mobility

which is the strongest interaction of water bonds?

dipole ion, dipole dipole, hydrophobic hydration

define Relative Vapour Pressure

the vapour pressure of a solution relative to vapour pressure of pure water

define water activity

RVP, approximately equal to RVP,

why is water content unhelpful to determine microbial growth?

cuz microbes respond to availability not amount

what is the effect on water activity and water content after an increase in temperature?

water activity increased, water content same

what is the result of moisture migration in frozen foods?

in-package dessication

list 4 things water activity depends on

water content, food composition, previous treatment, temperature

define molecular mobility

useful where moisture is low, little or no mobility when frozen since there is high micro-viscosity

explain glassy state

low water content, low temperature, high concentration of solids

explain rubber

if at the glassy state, temperature is raised or water removed

where did the food industry come from? 3 things

early man, society, civilization

what are the 4 big discoveries

tools, wheel, agriculture, fire

list 2 effects of cultivation

settlement, specie modification

3 aspects of the agricultural revolution of the 70s

fertilisation, hybridisation, irrigation

challenges to food industry -2

adulteration, food poisoning

list 2 characters of canned food

no MO growth, commercially sterile

4 steps of canning process

container, hermetically sealed, heat processed, cans cooled and labeled

canning achieves to destroy what 3 things

vegetative cells, spores, and enzymes

#1 concern in canning

clostridium botulinum

acid food vs low acid foods

acid= pH<4.5 mild treatment needed
low acid= pH>4.5 must destroy spores

3 containers for canned food

tinplate cans, glass jars, flexible pouches

3 advantages to flexible packaging

less waste, less weight, rapid heating

does canned food have preservatives?

no preservatives allowed

list the canning process- 10 steps

1. inspection
2. food preparation
3. blanching
4. filling
5. exhausting
6. sealing
7. heat processing
8. cooling
9. incubation and quality control checks
10. labeling and dispatch

list 4 methods of blanching

steam, hot water, microwaves, hot gasses

list 3 things blanching does to the food

expels gases, shrink products

list 3 methods of exhausting

1. heat
2. steam
3. mechanical

list 2 things exhausting does

1. removes oxygen
2. removes gas from headspace

what machine is used for heat processing


what temp must the product be cooled to


list 3 methods of heat transfer

convection, conduction, radiation

list 3 factors of heat rate penetration

nature of food, packaging, # and arrangement of cans

T/F : properly canned foods do not undergo spoilage unless maltreated


underprocessed cans lead to ...

thermophilic sporing ogranisms

not-processed canning leads to...

massive contamination

cooling water leakage into can leads to...

one/few types of vegetable MOs

what facilitates tinplate corrosion -5

oxygen, nitrates, nitrites, acids, sulphur

list 2 types of retorts in heat processing

batch and continuous

does aseptic processing produce a commercially sterile product?


3 steps of aseptic processing

1. product is heat treated
2. package is sterilized
3. aseptic filling and sealing

T/F aseptic packaging is used for solids and liquids?

FALSE just liquids or suspensions

T/F final aseptic product does not require refrigeration


list three things food additives are used for

improve taste, improve shelf life, maintain acidity

define acceptable daily intake

the amount of a food additive that can eb eaten every day for an entire lifetime with no adverse effect

list 3 things FSANZ does

protect health
provision of info
promotes fair trading

cooling saturated solutions causes crystallization or makes ----- solutions


3 functions of protein in the body

amino for tissue, forms enzymes, supporting roles in development

difference b/w food deterioration and food spoilage

food spoilage: undesirable consequence of chemical biological or physical action
food deterioration: change in composition or process becoming undesirable

what are the major groups of nutrients microorganisms need for geowth?

vitamins and minerals

4 areas which MOs can affect food supply

food safety, fermented foods, probiotic benefits, contamination

how did the green revolution affect production capacity

new technology and processes

list 5 factors to retard microbial growth

time, temp pH, oxygen, moisture

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